Chromomycosis: treatment, causes, symptoms, prognosis, prophylaxis
Such a disease, as a chromomycosis, is known in the circle of medical workers under different names: black blastomycosis, tropical blastomycosis, chromoblastomycosis.This chronic fungal infection is included in the group of deep mycoses.
It is characterized by damage to the skin, subcutaneous fat.At the same time on the dermis warty growths are formed.This article will tell you about the features of the morphology of pathogens of deep skin mycoses, their classification, show photos of patients with chromomycosis, give useful advice.
Features of the disease
Chromomycosis mainly affects the epidermal tissues, fatty tissues.In especially dangerous cases, the disease can cover internal organs( bones, brain, liver).
Most cases of the disease were observed in regions with a tropical, subtropical climate. Fungus is more convenient in a place with warm, wet weather, it is approached by the average annual temperature fluctuations in the region of 120C - 140C. course fungus is found everywhere, but most ofte
Affects the fungus more often than men.In the risk group, people whose age is in the range of 20 to 60 years.
According chromomycosis diseases developed by the international classification assigned to these numbers:
- B43 chromomycosis;
- B43.1 Chromomycosis of the brain;
- B43.0 Cutaneous chromomycosis;
- B43.2 Subcutaneous chromomycosis;
- B43.9 Chromomycosis, unspecified;
- B43.8 Other types of chromomycosis.
Given the kind of destruction, experts have identified the following subtypes of the disease:
- nodular .It manifests itself in the form of red nodules on the epidermis.Above, they are covered with pale scales;
- perforated .Skin rashes are like warts;
- is a tumor-like .In this subspecies large nodules are formed on the dermis, the surface of these warts is rough;
- cicatricial .Atrophic foci appear on the dermis, warty growths are observed on their periphery;
- scaly hyperkeratotic .On the dermis, red foci of lesion are formed, on them warty growths are observed.
You will learn about the morphological features of the pathogens of deep mycoses below.
manifestations of infection provoked stated below mushrooms family De-matiaceae:
- Fonsecaea pedrosoi( most popular);
- Botryomyces caespitosus;
- Rhinocladiella aquaspersa;
- Phialophora ver-racosa;
- Fonsecaea compacta;
- Cladosporium carrionii.
So, fungus, provoking disease is dvumorfnym, it is observed in the following forms:
- Tissue .It has the appearance of round, oval cells, the color of which can be light brown, brownish.The diameter of the cells in the region of 10-12 μm.
- Mycelium .It looks like a thin thread, the color of which is olive.
Fungus prefers to live in the following environments:
Infection develops when spores penetrate the affected areas of the epidermis( chipped wounds, scratches, cuts, abrasions).
The risk group includes:
- agricultural workers;
- population of tropical, subtropical countries.They entered the group for the reason that barefoot walking on the ground, are engaged in cultivating the land.
On what has deep mycosis( chromomycosis) symptoms, read below.
After the defeat by the fungus, the sufferer experiences such changes in the state of the body:
- Headaches appear.
- Fast fatigue is noted.
- General weakness manifests itself.
- There may be a decrease in appetite.
- The body temperature rises( can reach 37.50).
On the epidermis, the lesion is manifested several days after penetration of the fungus into the interior of the dermis.Usually, the lesion is localized to the epithelium of the upper, lower limbs.Initially, a reddish, bard tubercle forms.
Warty growths occur only a few months later.Reddish sprouting is similar to cauliflower in its form.There may be a fusion of lesions.Sometimes the affected areas become very large( 20 cm in diameter).
Also distinguish 3 forms of pathology:
- Bugdy .The hillocks appearing on the dermis have a cyanotic red color.Their shape is conical.The peculiarity of these formations is their propensity to peripheral growth.Over time, the bump becomes brown, a crust appears on it.Around this bumper, new elements appear.
- Knotty .It manifests itself in the hypoderm in the form of large nodes( 3 - 4 cm).These tubercles with a dense consistence are covered with cyanotic skin.After softening, they pass into the state of sores.The course of such a disease is long, long-term.This process can disseminate into internal organs.
- Papillomatous-ulcerative .After softening of warts on the epidermis there are erosions, ulcers.
Diagnosis of deep mycoses is further considered.
Among the usual diagnostic methods for detecting the disease, the following are used:
- biochemical studies( total protein, urea, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, direct, total bilirubin, transaminase level);
- general urinalysis;
- blood glucose;
- general blood test;
The specialist may also need specific test methods for a more accurate diagnosis:
- Cultural research.
Treatment for deep mycoses in the form of the infection in question should be performed by a dermatologist-mycologist in the hospital.This disease is very resistant to therapy.
The success of treatment directly depends on the severity of the infection, the duration of its course, the pathogen. Treatment of severe infections may take several years.
Chromomycosis at the foot
The positive effect of thermal therapy has been noted.Experts have found that an increased temperature of the epidermis is a poor condition for the life of the fungus.Thermal therapy usually lasts for 6 months, sometimes the course of treatment can last and more.
- In Japan, doctors advised patients to use pocket warmers.The experiment turned out to be successful, 31% of the total number of patients overcame the fungus completely.In 57% of the patients, only a significant improvement in their condition was noted.Only 12% of the infected did not find any fungal reaction to fever.
- Photodynamic therapy( PDT) is also used in the fight against fungus.It was performed using 5-aminolevulinic acid, irradiation, carried out with "Terbinafine", "Voriconazole".
By medicamentous method
- Many experts believe that the greatest effect in the treatment of chromomycosis is provided by Itraconazole.It is recommended to take this drug daily in dosage( 200 - 400 mg).Treatment is long, but its cessation has led to relapses.
- Also in some medical institutions, the recently released drug( Noxafil) is tested.In the US, specialists successfully used it in the therapy of Candida, Aspergillus.
The treatment of this infection is very long.Sometimes it takes years to cure it.In some cases, experts recommend patients to surgically remove tissues affected by the fungus.
Prevention of the disease
Among the precautions that can prevent infection are:
- Personal hygiene.
- Observance of precautions when working on the ground in the garden.It is recommended to wear tight gloves, do not walk barefoot.
- After receiving minor injuries, immediately disinfect them with a disinfectant( iodine, zelenka).
Unless the disease is treated or treated improperly, undesirable complications may occur:
- scars( cosmetic defects on the epidermis);
- attachment of secondary infection;
- development of squamous cell carcinoma.
With proper therapy, the prognosis is favorable. But if you do not start therapy of the disease, the defeat extends to the internal organs.When the brain is infected, a fatal outcome is possible.
This video will tell you about deep fungal infections, including chromomycosis, details: