Types of dermatitis: types, diagnosis, treatment in adults and children

August 24, 2017 23:00 | Dermatitis

  • Contact is the most common form.Contact dermatitis manifests itself immediately or a little later after contact with the stimulus.The area of ​​damage depends on the area of ​​contact, the intensity is determined by the force of the impact.There are 3 forms of contact ailment:
    • irritable - usually caused by direct action: thermal exposure, acid, contact with the plant;
    • allergic - the acting factor is the allergen, detergent, for example;
    • photocontact - the allergic reaction develops due to the action of light.There are phototoxic and photoallergic.
  • Allergic - it takes time to develop it.An allergic reaction is formed several weeks after exposure to the stimulus.And with secondary contact, and there is a skin reaction in the form of rash and itching.As a rule, in addition to rashes, the disease is accompanied by severe swelling of the face, lacrimation, abundant discharge of liquid from the nose.
  • Atopic is a chronic form of allergic, difficult to treat.In addition to the actual allergen, atopi
    c dermatitis causes stress and nervous shocks.It is characterized by severe itching of the affected area and the appearance of crusts.Appears for the first time in childhood.
  • Seborrheic - develops against the background of excessive activity of the sebaceous glands and is often caused by the activation of microflora.The fact is that the secret of the sebaceous glands has pronounced antiseptic properties and protects the scalp and hair.However, with excessive sebum secretion and in the presence of some other factors, the secret loses its properties.In this case, the pathogenic microflora is activated.All together and provokes the appearance of seborrheic dermatitis.It is localized only in the scalp.As such, rashes are not formed here.The disease manifests itself as the accelerated death of horny cells.As a result, a mass of exfoliated scales forms on the skin, which clogs the pores and ducts of the sebaceous glands, which leads to inflammation, irritation, even the appearance of abscesses.Distinguish dry, fat-liquid and fat thick seborrhea.The most dangerous is the latter, the probability of formation of abscesses and purulent crust is the highest.
  • Oral - red and pink spots of dermatitis appear around the mouth, sometimes appear on the eyelids and bridge of the nose.The disease is caused by contact with a chemical irritant - toothpaste, lipstick, eye shadow, cream.To get rid of the problem, it is enough to abandon the appropriate hygiene or care means.
  • Infectious is a consequence of the transmitted infections - scarlet fever, measles, and also the activation of pathogenic microflora on the wound surfaces.It affects not only the upper, but also deep layers of the skin, requires a protracted and complex treatment.
  • Fungal - its pathogen is numerous fungi that live on the skin, and become active under favorable conditions: weakened immunity, constantly moist skin, low resistance to some kind of fungus.
  • Ear - received the name for localization.It is characterized by skin peeling, the appearance of red crusts and severe itching.The root cause is almost always irritation and mechanical trauma to the auricle.
  • Phytodermite - its cause is a plant: milky juice from stems, pollen, specific aromatic substances, such as in citrus fruits.
  • Dysmenorrheic symmetric dermatitis - it causes insufficient secretion of female sex hormones: estradiol, estriol and so on.Cell receptors in some areas of the skin are sensitive to the level of hormones.If the estrogen hormones are insufficient, red rashes appear on the skin of the face, neck, and shoulder girdle.As a rule, the rash turns into blisters, often large, the formations become wet, and after drying they are covered with crust.
  • Itchy bather or schistosomatidny - cercariosis .Occurs when the skin is damaged by larvae of parasitic worms.It is observed when swimming in standing or weakly flowing water, where cercariae accumulate near the coast.The human skin for the larva is rough, the larva perishes, but causes an allergic reaction.As a rule, rashes are accompanied by an increase in temperature.
  • Exfoliative - the causative agent of the disease is staphylococcus or streptococcus.Rashes - red flaky, highly inflamed, appear on the entire body - trunk, face, limbs.The rash is accompanied by itching and burning, the lymph nodes are usually enlarged.Most often observed in newborns, since their immune system can not yet withstand the pathogenic microflora.
  • Diaper is another type of purely pediatric dermatitis.Redness and swelling is observed when air is insufficient in conditions of high humidity, that is, under diapers or in diapers, if they are not often changed.On the skin, uric acid and ammonia accumulate, together with friction they act as strong irritating factors.
  • Purple - differs a specific kind: at the first stage plaques of yellow or crimson color appear.Then bright red "young" spots appear on the boundaries of the plaques, while the color of the central "old" spot changes.It spreads throughout the body.Itching is usually absent.
  • Follicular - its characteristic feature is spherical acne.When the skin is deeply affected, swelling with purulent contents is formed.The causative agent of follicular dermatitis is staphylococcus, yeast-like fungi and so on.In fact, this is one form of infectious dermatitis.
  • Crawler - lepidopterism .Due to the irritation, which causes hairs on the body of caterpillars and butterflies.The severity of the damage depends on the individual sensitivity to this irritant.The disease develops immediately after contact, but it is kept quite a long time.
  • Hives is an acute inflammatory disease.On the skin quickly appear large blisters, the skin is very itchy.By appearance, urticaria resembles burns from the nettle.
  • Radiation - exposure to ionizing radiation can lead to inflammation and irritation of the skin.The degree of severity depends on the strength of the irradiation.
  • Durring herpetiform dermatitis is a polymorphic form in which there are simultaneously bubbles in the same area of ​​the skin, filled with liquids, papules - painful seals, and erythema - red round spots.The disease is accompanied by severe itching.It can spread to the entire body, but more often on the shoulders of the shoulder area, buttocks, folds of legs and hands.
  • Bullous - is caused by many factors.It differs from other forms by the formation of large numerous blisters with liquid contents.May be accompanied by burning and redness.

Inflammatory skin diseases there is quite a lot.Those of them that are caused by an allergic reaction - slow or immediate, belong to the category of allergic dermatoses.Dermatitis also belongs to this group of skin ailments.

What is dermatitis

Dermatitis is a heterogeneous skin disease caused by a variety of factors:

  • physical - dermatitis can be caused by frostbite, electric shock, insect bite - a very common cause of allergy, sunburn;
  • chemical - the most "popular" representative of this category - household chemicals.However, too, the effect can cause cosmetics, dyes, building materials.Quite often, the cause may be medications;
  • biological - weakening of the immune system, stress, poor living conditions.Hereditary predisposition to allergy also belongs to this category.

Symptoms of dermatitis coincide with many inflammatory allergic reactions.In fact, this is the reaction of the skin to the stimulus.Severity of symptoms is determined by the severity of the disease:

  • acute form - appears immediately after contact with the stimulus and disappears as soon as the contact is interrupted;
  • subacute - symptoms persist after contact disappears;
  • chronic - is formed due to periodic contact with the stimulus for a long time.In this case, the disappearance of the provoking factor is no longer sufficient for healing.

What is dermatitis, see in the video below:

Types of dermatitis

Classify ailments more often than the nature of the pathogen.There are many types of disease.

The distribution and localization of dermatitis is directly related to the damaging factor.If we are talking about an external factor, as it happens with contact dermatitis, then the site that is in contact with the stimulus first of all is affected.That is, with allergies to household chemicals, it is likely to be hands, with allergies to pollen, the rash will appear in the nasolabial folds, near the nose and eyes, when reacting to a bite of insects, dermatitis will be observed at the site of the bite.

  • If the irritating factor is the weakening of the immune system, a breakdown in the endocrine system, and the rash appears on those areas of the skin that are associated with the root cause of the disease.So for dysmenorrheic symmetric dermatitis, inflammation and papules appear on the face, neck and shoulders, where the skin receptors are sensitive to the level of estrogens.
  • With seborrheic dermatitis, rashes and plaques form on areas with a large number of sebaceous glands: the scalp, nasolabial folds, and back.
  • Perianal dermatitis also occurs.

About types of dermatitis on the hands this video will tell:

General characteristics of

There are, of course, differences in different types of dermatitis.However, the common clinical signs in most cases coincide:

  • site of inflamed reddened skin - erythema.If it is a chronic disease, then redness may not be;
  • itching - usually very strong.However, in some forms it is absent.Its intensity depends on the degree of irritation of nerve fibers;
  • puffiness - sometimes swelling not only affected skin but also areas of the body prone to fluid accumulation - face, for example, hands;
  • rash - the shape, size and color of the rash depends on the type of disease;
  • blisters, blisters - are formed in most cases.The size and tenderness of them depends not so much on the species as on the severity of the disease;
  • burning - not observed in all cases, typical for photodermatitis;
  • coarsening of the upper layer of the skin - after the appearance of peeling of the crust, the skin under it loses its elasticity;
  • peeling - especially abundant with seborrheic form.

In some cases, dermatitis is accompanied by fever, increased lymph nodes, sometimes nausea and vomiting.The severity of symptoms depends on the severity of the ailment and the individual sensitivity to the allergen that causes irritation.

Diagnostic methods

Diagnosis of any ailment begins with examination of the patient and assessment of complaints.Localization provides additional information, however, in this case, the lesion zone indicates the cause of irritation rather than the state of the organism.Diagnosis itself dermatitis does not cause difficulties, since its symptoms are quite specific.

Laboratory tests are needed in order to accurately determine the irritating factor and to investigate the sensitivity of the patient to any of the allergens.Without this, it is impossible to build the right treatment tactics.

Assign the following assays:

  • general blood test - allows you to evaluate the level of white blood cells.With inflammation it is elevated;
  • biochemical blood test - allows you to identify allergens.The level of immunoglobulins depends on the presence or absence of certain allergens;
  • seeding of excretion from the focus of inflammation - thus determine whether there are fungi, bacteria, microorganisms in the liquid to be separated;
  • bak-sowing of secreted fluid - at the same time they determine the sensitivity of the patient to different antibiotics.The latter include a course of therapy;
  • immunogram is recommended for use in cases where there are persistent concomitant infections;
  • analysis of feces - give information about dysbiosis.The latter is the cause of many types of dermatitis;
  • feces analysis for parasite content;
  • skin tests - conducted with contact dermatitis.Thus, an allergy of a former origin is established.

In addition, ultrasound and other additional tests may be prescribed.

Drugs for the treatment of

Treatment for dermatitis is selected individually.Depending on the severity of the disease, the stage of development, the nature of the allergen and the expressiveness of the reaction, drugs are selected, varying their dose to obtain a minimum therapeutic dose.Treatment includes both preparations for internal use, and external.

  • Required element - elimination of the stimulus, for which it must be installed.In some cases this is enough to make the symptoms of dermatitis disappear after a few hours or days.
  • With infectious or fungal dermatitis, primary treatment is aimed at the destruction of viruses, fungi, bacteria.Only after removal of the pathogen begin to treat the skin disease.
  • Damaged areas undergo antiseptic treatment - chlorhexidine, for example.
  • Assign also anti-inflammatory and antibacterial drugs - erythromycin, levomycitin.
  • If there are bubbles, they need to be pierced, but the sheath will not be removed until she exfoliates naturally.If blisters are absent, then a bandage with ointments on a corticosteroid basis is applied to the dermatitis foci - hydrocortisone, prednisolone.The dressing is held for a short time, the duration is determined by the doctor.
  • When the dermatitis is wetting, bandages impregnated with Burov's liquid are applied to the affected areas.
  • When an acute form of a disease or a severe stage is prescribed corticosteroids inside.The most commonly used prednisolone: ​​2 weeks, first by 70 mg / day, and then reducing the dose every day by 5 mg.
  • Absorbent intake helps to excite pathogens and breakdown products.Suitable even for simple activated charcoal.
  • To remove the itch, prescribe antihistamines: suprastin, cetirizine.

An essential component of therapeutic treatment is a special diet, from which all products that are potential allergens are excluded. These include smoked meat, pickles, eggs and milk, many dried fruits, tropical fruits, coffee, cocoa, chocolate, all desserts, complex sauces, like mayonnaise.The daily diet at the beginning of treatment can include only low-allergenic foods: lean boiled fish, pearl barley, zucchini, cucumbers, dried fruits from pears and apples.If none of these products cause dermatitis, gradually in the diet include products from the middle category: lamb, buckwheat, potatoes, green fruit.

Dermatitis is diverse, caused by a variety of factors.To protect yourself from illness, you need to lead a healthy lifestyle: follow the rules of hygiene, use rich in vitamins, and not carbohydrates products, more to move.

Dermatitis in the child, its types and symptoms - the subject of the video below: