Symptoms and treatment of meningitis in adults, the first signs of the disease

August 24, 2017 23:00 | Secondary Headaches

1 Causes of the disease

Meningococcal disease is the main cause of the disease. In most cases, this infection is transmitted through the air from the carrier.In addition to meningococci, the disease also occurs as a result of the influence of the hemophilic, tubercle bacillus and other pathogens.One of the reasons for the appearance of meningitis is enterovirus infection, although there is a high likelihood of its occurrence and against a background of diseases such as chicken pox, measles and rubella.

In most cases, signs of meningitis in adults are acute.Only a disease of tuberculous origin can develop for several weeks.The first symptoms in adults are accompanied by intoxication: high fever, chills, weakness, pain in the muscles and joints.

  • How the meningococcal infection manifests in children
  • What are the symptoms of meningitis
  • How long does the incubation period of meningitis take?
  • Contemporary preparations from Pressure!

The main symptom of meningitis is a headache without de

finite localization.Patients often complain that the head hurts all.Over time, the pain only increases, increases when making movements, from the action of bright light.It often happens that patients can not distinguish reality from hallucinations.Pain can be accompanied by severe nausea and vomiting, which does not reduce pain.

The disease of meningococcal etiology is characterized by the appearance of rashes on the body.With a mild form of the disease, the rash has the appearance of small reddish-brown points on the body, which disappear after a few days.In severe form, large red spots appear on the body, which can last for several weeks.When the disease affects the cranial nerves, the patient develops strabismus.

Often patients suffer from straining the muscles of the occiput.The pain is aggravated by turning the head and bending the legs in the knees.To reduce the level of soreness, patients often take a certain pose on the bed.Most often they turn to the side, throw their heads back, hands are pressed to the chest, and the legs are bent at the knees.

2 How different types of the

manifest themselves As mentioned above, meningitis can arise from the action of various pathogens.Proceeding from this, meningitis of different etiology manifests itself in different ways.Meningitis in adults is bacterial, viral and tubercular.

  1. Bacterial meningitis occurs as a result of the penetration of the meningococcal, pneumococcal bacteria and the hemophilic rod into the nervous system.The latter is most often a trigger mechanism in the development of children's meningitis, rather than an adult.Symptoms of meningococcal meningitis are quite severe for the patient.There may be hemorrhagic eruptions of enormous size.Most often, such spots are formed on the legs, hips, buttocks and mucous membranes.The patient may complain of a fever, chills.Possible intoxication.Pneumococcal meningitis is accompanied in half the cases by pneumonia.Symptoms include cranial nerve damage and clouding of consciousness, seizures of epilepsy.This type of meningitis is often repeated and leads to a lethal outcome.
  2. Viral meningitis begins with the symptoms of the infection that caused it.Moderate fever, severe pain in the head and weakness are the main signs of viral meningitis.The turbidity of the mind is not observed, as are other meningeal symptoms.
  3. Meningitis of a tuberculous nature is one of the first signs of the development of clinical tuberculosis.Earlier this form of the disease ended in death, but now the death rate is only in 15-20% of cases.The main symptoms: the appearance of a vomiting reflex, pain in the head and fever.In this case, meningeal symptoms are present.

Treatment of meningitis in adults, if it is timely, will help to get rid of the disease completely.

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3 Treatment activities

In most cases, the physician will be able to diagnose a patient's meningitis without problems, since the symptoms are quite specific.To determine the type of pathogen, a spinal puncture is prescribed.Treatment is carried out only in a hospital.

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The basis of the treatment is antibacterial therapy.When the first symptoms appeared, treatment should be carried out using antibiotics penicillin and cephalosporin group.The use of such drugs is explained by the fact that the result of the lumbar puncture will not be ready immediately, and a blood test does not always allow to determine with accuracy the type of pathogen.The above formulations are administered intravenously.If the meningitis is extremely difficult, then the drugs are injected into the spinal canal.The nature of the course of antibacterial therapy and its duration are determined by the attending physician, but it should be noted that the drugs should be used even one week after the temperature is normalized.

Prevention and treatment of cerebral edema is carried out using diuretics.To enter diuretics should be simultaneously with the liquid.But it must be remembered that diuretics help to wash away calcium from the body.

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Detoxification therapy is aimed at reducing the level of intoxication of the body.The patient is injected with saline intravenously.The duration of the treatment depends on the severity of the meningitis and the condition of the patient.After inpatient treatment, an outpatient treatment is also needed.The patient's health can be restored for a fairly long time( about a year), so a person must decide for himself whether he should go back to work.Everything will depend on how meningitis manifests itself in a particular case.

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4 Preventive measures

The most reliable preventive tool in this case is vaccination against those diseases that can trigger the development of meningitis.For example, meningococcal vaccination, against a hemophilic rod.But also the following prevention methods can be used:

  • not to contact people who have meningitis;
  • If the contact with the infected person has occurred, it is necessary to consult a doctor for the appointment of a course of taking special medications;
  • application of disposable masks during the epidemic of one of the infectious diseases;
  • observe hygiene rules( wash hands with soap before meals, after visiting public places);
  • maintain immunity in a stable state.

It should be noted that meningitis is an extremely dangerous and insidious disease.Do not neglect prophylactic treatment, which will help to avoid further complications.Self-treatment in case of meningitis is also unacceptable, you should apply for help only to an experienced and qualified specialist.

And it must be remembered that the first signs of meningitis can manifest themselves in different ways, but it is not recommended to ignore such signals.