Sarkoma skin: photos, symptoms, types, causes, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis

August 23, 2017 23:00 | Skin Covering

Sarcoma education accounts for about 5% of the total number of malignant processes.

They can affect various tissues of our body like bone, nervous, lymphatic, blood and other internal structures.Often, sarcomatous processes develop in the skin layers.

About the disease

Cutaneous sarcomas are a group of malignant tumor processes that form in skin tissues from abnormal connective tissue elements.

Such formations are rare.Prefer to localize on the hips, legs, chest and abdominal area, forearms.

The share of cutaneous sarcoma is about 0.3% of the total number of skin tumors of malignant type.

Types of cutaneous sarcomas

Skin sarcomatous formations are classified by analogy with soft tissue tumors.According to histological signs, these formations are practically indistinguishable, which causes confusion in diagnosis.

This is why the diagnostic and therapeutic approach is based on general principles similar to soft tissue sarcomas.

In general, cutaneous neoplasms are classified in the abdominal

region, grow more slowly, do not ulcerate, metastasize mainly in the lung tissue, lymph nodes in theThe tumor process with a similar type of cutaneous sarcoma is usually not involved;
  • Liposarcomas are a mesenchymal cell tumor that primarily affects older men.It has the form of diffuse cutaneous infiltration, has daughter nodal foci;
  • Angiosarcomas - look like a red-violet bruise, more often localized on the face, but can form in other places.They are identified as single tumors, prone to bleeding.They are formed from endothelial vascular cells;
  • Leiomyosarcoma - is of smooth muscle origin, occurs at any age, but more often in elderly and middle-aged patients.Education is usually single, characterized by a particularly pronounced malignancy and in almost all cases ends lethal;
  • Kaposi's sarcoma is a very rare pathological form, more often localized on the feet and hands, the children and elderly men are most susceptible to such a tumor.
  • Photo of the sarcoma of the skin

    Cutaneous sarcoma

    Similar forms of sarcomatous formations are identified most often, although there are other types.Depending on the origin, sarcomatous formations are primary or secondary.

    Reasons

    Skin sarcomatous tumors usually develop against the background of such factors:

    • Long-term dermatoses, chronic dermatitis.Against the backdrop of such pathologies, the skin is exposed to permanent injuries and injuries, which play a role provoking cutaneous sarcoma factor;
    • Presence of cicatricial changes on the skin;
    • Inflammatory skin pathologies of a chronic type;
    • The presence of benign processes like fibroids, lipomas, etc. Such a factor indicates the presence of predisposition to tumor processes;
    • Poor heredity, genetic predisposition;
    • Various kinds of traumatic skin lesions;
    • Negative chemical and carcinogenic effects, occupational activities related to harmful production, radiation, pesticides, etc.;
    • Long-term systemic lupus erythematosus;
    • Unhealthy addictions like nicotine, alcohol, drugs, which also have a toxic effect on the body.

    Symptoms of the skin sarcoma

    The onset of the sarcomatous process is characterized by the appearance of a tight knot formation that gradually grows and acquires a blurred and irregular shape.

    The formation grows in the direction of the epidermal layer, sprouts into its structures, acquiring the appearance of a mushroom-like node with manifestations on the surface.To tissues these nodes are attached with a wide base.

    Similar neoplasms can develop both slowly and rapidly, early metastasizing. In the development of the tumor process, the clinical picture is as follows:

    1. As the surface grows, ulcers appear, the formations begin to bleed, which causes discomfort and pain;
    2. On the background of ulceration, infection often occurs, inflammation develops;
    3. The sizes of tumors can reach tens of centimeters;
    4. The color of these tumors also differ, they come from light pale pink to saturated violet-cyanotic shades;
    5. When the visceral spread of the tumor is actively affected lymph nodes structures of deep and peripheral localization;
    6. When the tumor process penetrates into the nerve, joint, bone or vascular tissues, there is a pronounced discomfort symptomatology and soreness, which usually encourages patients to consult a doctor.

    In the absence of treatment, a fatal outcome occurs approximately in a couple of years from the onset of sarcoma development.

    Diagnostics

    Examination for the presence of cutaneous sarcoma To determine the type and nature of the tumor, the patient is assigned a comprehensive diagnosis, which begins with a thorough medical examination.

    On the development of malignant oncology, signs like ulceration, pain, bleeding, dark shade of education, metastases speak.

    But to confirm the diagnosis, a biopsy should be performed with a histological study of the biomaterial.Such a procedure is considered a compulsory study in the diagnosis of such education.

    In addition, tests and analyzes are carried out such as:

    • Electronic or light microscopic examination;
    • Immunohistochemical analysis using antibodies;
    • Cytogenetic analysis;
    • Flow cytometry, which helps to determine oncomarkers, determine the type of cells, etc.;
    • Fluorescence.

    Therapeutic therapy

    With respect to cutaneous sarcomatous tumors, several different therapeutic techniques are used, which are used singly or in combination.One of the priority methods is surgical treatment.

    Operations are carried out in several ways:

    1. Extensive excision of - when complete removal of the affected area is performed;
    2. Microsurgical operation of Mohs - a gradual, layered removal of visible oncogenes is performed until a healthy tissue is reached;
    3. Gentle removal of - when the doctor removes only education without amputation, followed by additional chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

    If necessary, the removal of lymph nodes.In combination with surgical interventions, irradiation is often used to destroy cancerous cell structures that could remain after removal or to reduce the tumor in order to simplify the procedure for surgical treatment.

    In addition, the chemotherapeutic effect is also performed.The method is very effective, but it has a lot of strong side effects.

    Chemotherapy is used only as an additional method, it is impossible to completely cure sarcoma with antitumor drugs.This technique can be used as the main one at the thermal stage in order to prolong the patient's life.

    Prognosis and prophylaxis

    The prognosis is caused by the type of tumor, the presence and degree of metastasis, the stage of the tumor process, the response to therapy, etc. Thus, fibrosarcoma, for example, is characterized by slow growth and lack of metastases, therefore the prognosis is positive.

    And leiomyosarcomas, on the contrary, are characterized by aggressive course and early metastasis, which adversely affects the predictions.

    As for prevention, there are no specific measures. To prevent sarcomatous skin formation it is recommended:

    • Timely and qualitatively provide treatment for any skin pathologies of allergic, inflammatory or infectious origin;
    • Avoid prolonged sunbathing or fanaticism in the solarium;
    • Until the end of trauma and skin damage, and avoid their recurrence;
    • Avoiding aggressive environmental influences such as carcinogens, radiation, harmful production, etc.