Stevens-Johnson Syndrome: symptoms, treatment, causes, photo
The variety of forms of lesions of the skin requires their detailed classification, which allows attributing the current disease to a certain type and make the most effective treatment regimen.After all, some of the forms of eczema have not only a very unpleasant course for the patient, but also can be a danger to his life.
And one of these varieties is malignant multiforme exudative eczema, called Stevens-Johnson syndrome
, which has characteristic symptoms with damage to the upper layer of the epidermis and mucous membranes.Its course is accompanied by an active deterioration in the general condition of the patient, marked ulceration of the surfaces, which can lead to serious complications for human health in the absence of the necessary medicinal effect.In this article, we will talk about the differences between Lyell's and Stevens-Johnson syndromes, whether it is possible to swim at the same time, as well as the causes and treatment of the disease.
Features of the disease
Stevens-Johnson syndrome has a very rapid development with a rapid aggravation of the characteristic symptoms, which dramatically affects the patient's health. Skin lesions are expressed in the appearance of a rash on its surface, which gradually deepens into the upper layer of the epidermis and causes the formation of clearly marked lesions. In this case, the patient feels a significant soreness of the affected skin, even with a slight mechanical effect on it.
- This condition can occur at almost any age, but most often it occurs in people who have reached the 40-year mark.
- But, according to doctors, today such a pathological condition began to occur at a younger age, as well as among infants.
- Men have Stevens-Johnson syndrome with the same frequency as women, and the symptoms of the disease are quite similar.
Like any other skin lesion, Stevens-Johnson syndrome is easier to treat if detected at the earliest possible stages.Therefore, timely treatment for the examination allows you to make a more effective treatment scheme to prevent further aggravation of the pathological condition of the patient's skin.
In medical practice, there is a separation of this condition into several stages depending on the degree of neglect of the disease.
- At the initial stage of , skin lesions in Stevens-Johnson syndrome show an increase in body temperature, which is accompanied by a deterioration in the general condition, the appearance of drowsiness and loss of orientation in space.In some cases, the appearance of diarrhea, a disorder of the digestive process.Along with this, at the first stage of the development of the disease on the skin, lesions begin to appear that are characterized by reddening of the skin areas, an increase in its sensitivity.The duration of the first stage can range from a few days to 2 weeks.
- In the second stage of the progression of the Stevens-Johnson syndrome, the area of the lesions with the affected skin increases, the hypersensitivity of the skin also increases.On the surface of the skin, a rash of small size is formed first, then bubbles with serous contents, the patient develops a thirst, the production of saliva decreases.In this case, the characteristic manifestations are noted both on the surface of the skin and on the mucous membranes, mainly of the genital organs and oral cavity.In this case, the rashes have a symmetrical arrangement, and the duration of the second stage of the disease is no more than 5 days.
- The third stage of is characterized by general weakening of the patient's body, skin and mucous membranes with lesions hurt, very severe itching, burning.In the absence of medical care or its insufficiency, a fatal outcome is likely.
About the features and concepts of Stevens-Johnson syndrome will tell this video:
Causes of the Stevens-Johnson syndrome
There are a number of reasons that trigger the onset of Stevens-Johnson syndrome and its progression.To the reasons that can cause the emergence of such a condition can be attributed:
- infectious diseases of the body, which drastically reduce the degree of efficiency of the immune system.Most often this cause becomes the main impetus for the onset of Stevens-Johnson syndrome in children and infants when their immune system is weakened;
- The use of certain medications, one of which contains a significant amount of sulfidamines also provokes the occurrence of Stevens-Johnson syndrome;
- lesions of the organism of a malignant nature, which include cancer diseases, AIDS;
- an idiopathic variant of the disease can develop due to psychological overstrain, nervous overload and depressed states of prolonged course.
Also to the reasons for the development of Stevens-Johnson syndrome include a combination of these reasons, or a combination thereof.
The most characteristic manifestations in the activation of Stevens-Johnson syndrome include deterioration of the skin, which occurs very quickly from the second stage of the current pathological process. In this case, the following symptoms are noted:
- body temperature rise and general weakening of the body, while in some parts of the body spots with red spots are formed.The size of such sites can vary significantly, their location is different.Spots can be single, then they begin to merge.The location of the spots is usually symmetric;
- after a few hours( 10-12) on the surface of such spots, swellings form, the upper layer of the epidermis begins to flake off.Inside the stain a bubble is formed, in which the serous liquid is grayish in color.At the opening of such a bubble in its place remains the affected area, which has increased sensitivity and soreness;
- gradually the process covers an ever larger skin surface, in parallel there is a significant deterioration in the patient's condition.
When the mucous membranes are affected, there is increased sensitivity, swelling of the tissues and their swelling.When the formed bubbles are opened, the exudate is serous and bloody, which leads to rapid dehydration of the patient.After opening the blisters on the skin, more erosion remains, the skin on them has a bright red color and increased sensitivity.
Stevens-Johnson syndrome shows a gradual aggravation of the current state, the skin surface changes its appearance, even with a slight mechanical effect it is markedly painful with the formation of significant erosion, with no bubbles on the skin.Body temperature continues to be elevated.
Thanks to the diagnosis in the initial stages of the development of the disease, it is possible to achieve the fastest possible improvement in the patient's condition.For the diagnosis used methods such as biochemical and general blood analysis, urine analysis, coagulogram data, as well as a biopsy of skin particles of the affected person.
The manifestations of this condition can resemble other types of skin eczema, because laboratory methods will avoid mistakes in the diagnosis.It is required to distinguish between Stevens-Johnson syndrome and pemphigus, toxic epidermal necrolysis.
Treatment, care for the development of Stevens-Johnson syndrome should be carried out as soon as possible to prevent a significant aggravation of the pathological process, which allows the patient to save life.
The diagnosis and treatment of the Stevens-Johnson syndrome will be described in the video below:
Since this condition is characterized by a rapid aggravation of pathological processes in the skin, rendering therapeutic assistance has no significant effectiveness.The most effective is the reception of certain medications to relieve soreness and eliminate the main symptoms of the disease.
As an important therapeutic tool for this condition, you can consider bed rest and make a diet based on liquid and puree food.
The most important step in the activation of the manifestation of Stevens-Johnson syndrome is the intake of glucocorticosteroids.Also to medical preparations with the expressed effect it is necessary to carry:
- cancellation of the medicines used earlier to eliminate the possibility of aggravation of the current condition;
- Infusion to prevent serious dehydration;
- disinfection of the skin with the help of products drying the affected area;
- reception of antibacterial drugs;
- antihistamines, relieving burning sensation of the skin and its itching;
- disinfection of mucous membranes with the help of Solcoseryl or hydrogen peroxide.
The promptness of the provision of medication helps determine its effectiveness and the achievement of pronounced results in the treatment.
- Surgery is not recommended for the detection of Stevens-Johnson syndrome.
- Folk methods are also powerless in the active process of skin lesions.
Deviations and diseases.
At the beginning of treatment in the early stages of survival is 95-98%, with more neglected - from 60 to 82%.With no help, the patient dies in 93% of cases.
This video will tell you about the Stevens-Johnson syndrome in a young girl and about the fight against such a disease: