Leukoderma: causes, symptoms, treatment, prevention, prognosis
Sometimes there is a violation of pigmentation of individual skin areas.They sometimes lose color and, as a result, there are white spots of different sizes.This phenomenon is called leukoderma, you should consult a doctor to understand what factor it caused.
Features of the disease
Leukoderma occurs as a consequence of a change in the amount of substance( melanin) in the skin that is responsible for pigmentation.Appear white spots of different shapes and sizes. Their color can also be different.It depends on how much the presence of melanin is different from the norm, the cause that caused such changes in the skin.Sometimes the spots have a border.
- The disease is the same in both female and male individuals.
- It is also not noticed that at some age it was more common.
- Children also suffer from leukoderma.Sometimes signs of the disease are found even in newborns.
About what it is, residual, posthypoxic periventricular leukopathy, false, professional, drug leukoderma, etc.At children and adults,
syphilitic leukoderma( photo)
skilled subdivided disease such types:
- Professional and dosage leukoderma occurs from the effect on the body of toxic substances.
- Infectious leukoderma - cause infectious diseases, it can be:
- leprosy leukoderma,
- syphilitic leukoderma.
- Immune leukoderm is provoked by autoimmune diseases:
- with lupus erythematosus,
- Congenital leukoderm includes varieties:
- Bloch-Sulzberger melanoblastosis,
- tuberous sclerosis,
- albinism( 10 forms).
Acquisition time and forms
Diseases are classified by acquisition time:
Forms of the disease:
- primary - these include vitiligo and light spots from the effects of toxic substances;
- secondary - the bulk of leukoderma diseases are a consequence of other diseases.
Reasons for the occurrence of
The disruption, as a reduction in the pigment on the skin area, up to complete discoloration, happens for a number of reasons:
- as a result of diseases:
- related to the nervous system,
- for autoimmune disorders,
- caused by a violation of hormonal processes,
- of congenital anomalies;
- as a reaction of the body to chemicals, including drugs, if they cause intoxication in a person;
- there are cases when the cause remains unclear.
Symptoms that have leukoderma or hyperpigmentation are described below.
Signs of leukoderma are spots on the skin of a light color. Around the spots there is a zone in the form of a rim of an even lighter tone.The bezel can have a darker color than the spot and even be reddish.
Spots occur in different shades( yellowish, pinkish, white) - this is due to a disease-cause, which triggered depigmentation.Spots are protruding above the surface or flat, flush with the skin.
Also a few may vary in size and shape.Different diseases cause discolored spots in their characteristic places.Syphilitic leukoderma, for example, causes light spots in the area:
- sometimes on the abdomen
- and back.
In other cases, the bright spots are located( except those already mentioned places) still:
- on the upper extremities,
- in the inguinal folds,
- on the lower extremities,
- on the face,
- Throughout the body.
How to identify foci of leukopathy and to treat leukoderma, we will tell below.
Diagnosis of leukopathy
Determination of the diagnosis when discolored spots appear occurs through finding the cause that caused this phenomenon.The dermatologist analyzes all the symptoms that are observed in the patient, and determines whether consultations of other specialists are needed.
- The physician interrogates the patient, with what chemicals he had contact, whether medicines were taken.
- If suspected that the patient has a primary disease that caused leukoderma-lichen, the spots are checked using a Wood lamp( luminescent diagnostics).Patients with a directional light absorb it, and healthy - reflect.
- In determining the diagnosis, the diseases affected by the patient's relatives are included.
- The patient is referred for blood biochemical analysis.
The reason for the appearance of spots will be decisive for the adoption of treatment methods.With some diseases depigmented spots should not be treated, they themselves eventually pass.These cases include spots that have appeared:
- after burns,
- as a result of skin inflammation,
- after herpes, as well as:
In case of light spots from contact with chemicals, contact should be avoided.
If the nature of the disease that caused depigmentation, infection, treatment is aimed at solving this problem.Trying to select therapy and in some cases of immune disorders.
Congenital forms of the disease are also tried to correct by therapeutic methods, but this does not bring much success.One of the ways to help with the treatment of light spots is PUVA-therapy.It uses ultraviolet irradiation together with the use of a photoactive substance.
Each patient is assigned a complex of treatment individually.The drugs are applied externally and inward.Use of such drugs direction:
- analogs of phenylalanine,
- furokumarinovye preparations,
- preparations copper, zinc;
- enzymes for digestion.
In some cases, specialists may decide to perform a surgical operation.Possible options for intervention:
- skin grafts using donor transplants,
- melanocyte transplantation( autologous),
- skin transplantation, taken from the patient.
To prevent the situation of deficiency in the skin tissue of melanin, it is recommended to use in food products rich in tyrosine. This is the amino acid necessary for the synthesis of melanin.Experts advise to include in the menu dishes, which include products:
- sea fish and other seafood,
- and pumpkin,
- seed of sesame and flax;
- vegetable oils,
- dairy products,
- dried fruits:
Consequences may give rise to underlying diseases that have led to a disruption of pigmentation in the skin.Bright spots, in most cases, are not the root cause and depend on the disease and the ability to completely cure it.
The presence of colorless spots makes a cosmetic defect and frustrates the nervous system of the patient.A person can become depressed, become anxious.To avoid this, you should consult a psychiatrist, a neurologist.
What will be the result after the appearance of leukoderma and its treatment, ultimately, depends entirely on the reasons that triggered the problem. Some of them, to some extent, are amenable to treatment( small percentage), there are varieties that do not pass, but only progress.
- There are also some leukoderms that, after eliminating the cause that produced them, pass by themselves.So it happens with bright spots after lishy, burns, inflammations.
- If bright spots appear from the toxic effects of chemicals, then after eliminating the harmful factor, they usually also pass.
- Pigmentary disorders that are congenital as well as caused by autoimmune diseases are poorly amenable to changes.
- as a result of diseases: