Cytological examination: types of procedure, indications and contraindications for use, preparation, price

August 19, 2017 23:00 | Methods Of Diagnosis

In medical diagnostics a special place is occupied by bacteriological, cytological and histological methods of research.Due to the fact that uterine cancer ranks third among the diseases of the female half of humanity, the primary task is the early detection of pathology, and even better - the prerequisites for the disease.Cytological research is the method that can cope with such a task.

What is a cytology test

A study that takes into account the condition of cells is called cytological.This procedure has many advantages over other methods due to the informative nature of the results and the absence of traumatic tissue and organs when taking material for analysis.

difference between histological and cytological examination is described in this video:

To appoint his

  • The study is part of a routine inspection of the female half, since 18 years.
  • There may also be a doctor's appointment in connection with the need for diagnosis in case of suspected pathology.

Why do you need a cytological ex

amination of urine, blood, sputum, etc.?In women and men.

Why it pass

cytology can detect the presence of cancer cells in a period when the body does not exhibit any symptoms indicative of the disease process begins. And as you know, in the early stages of cancer are completely curable.

Furthermore, the procedure gives information:

  • about possible inflammatory process in the uterus,
  • the presence of infection,
  • of changes in hormonal levels.

The examination is recommended for preventive purposes at least once a year, and if there is a pathology, then according to the doctor's prescription the analysis is taken for cytological testing several times during the year.

For research methods in cytological diagnostics, read below.

Types of procedure

The method of cytological examination involves a laboratory study of a material taken as a smear from the surfaces of organs of the uterine region.

Cells can be examined using the following methods:

  • The centrifugation method is used, if necessary, to obtain a result, separating the cell membrane from the general structure.
  • Method of microscopy is light and electronic.
  • In-life study of makes it possible to observe the processes taking place in the cell.
  • The method of labeled atoms - the biochemical processes occurring in a cell are monitored by the introduction into the cell of a radioactive isotope.

On what the cytological test shows, read below.

Indications for

Assign cytology in such circumstances:

  • the patient infertility,
  • supposed cervical erosion,
  • patient preparing to conceive a child,
  • woman takes a long time, hormone drugs,
  • ofvaginal discharge are observed,
  • there is a suspicion of infection of genitals, visible manifestations:
    • herpes,
    • warts,
    • warts;
  • in the patient irregular menstruation,
  • examination occurs on the eve of the installation of the spiral.


  • Pemphigus vulgaris;
  • pemphigus;
  • of dyskinesia of the stomach;
  • rubromycosis;
  • leukoplakia tongue.

How does cytological cervical study will show the video below:

Contraindications for

research may show inaccurate information, if it is carried out:

  • during the course of the inflammatory process in the uterus, an increased number of leukocytes can affect the accuracy of determining the presence of atypical cells;
  • menstrual bleeding is also not a favorable time for analysis.

Whether the sampling is safe for cytology, read below.

Safety of the method

We study biological material taken by methods that do not damage the organs and do not violate their integrity. Therefore the procedure is completely safe.

Further on how to prepare, if you received a referral for a cytological diagnostic study, read below.

Preparing for analysis

In order for the manipulation to be successful and the material to be used, it is necessary to fulfill certain conditions:

  • No special training is required.
  • Before taking a smear, it is necessary that at least 24 hours a woman avoids sexual contact.
  • If the patient is treated for an acute infection, then it will be correct to take the material for the examination 60 days after the end of the treatment.
  • If there is any doubt about the result, it is recommended that the biological material be repeated several times.
  • It is important that the production of the biomaterial is correctly correlated with the menstrual cycle of the patient.Do not take a fence later than five days before the anticipated beginning of the cycle, and during menstruation it is recommended to do the analysis, starting from the fifth day of the cycle.This rule must be met if the purpose of the study is to determine precancerous conditions or diagnose cancer.
  • When testing is performed to determine the effect of hormonal treatment, it is recommended that the material be taken two weeks after the end of the course.
  • If a patient is examined to understand the cause of problems with the menstrual cycle, a stroke for analysis is prescribed every three days.
  • In case of clarification of the question of inflammatory processes in the uterine zone - a smear can be performed on any day, except for the period of the menstrual cycle.
  • To obtain non-distorted results of the study, no procedures should be performed three days before:
    • douching,
    • application of candles, creams;
    • participation in other studies of the uterus area, for example, ultrasound diagnosis;
    • drink less fluids to urinate about three hours before taking the smear.

Features of the

  • The procedure is painless because there is no implant in the uterus tissue.Sensations during the sampling of the material are somewhat unpleasant, but this is a very short time.
  • The patient is located on a gynecological chair, the specialist takes a brush on the uterine surface, from the cervical canal, at the discretion of the doctor, from the canal.

Interpretation of results and norms of cytological examination of smear, etc.Is described below.

Decoding results

Specialists evaluate the condition of cells lining the surface.It is known that the vagina and cervix have a different type of basic lining cells:

  • on the cervix, the upper layer is represented by cylindrical cells,
  • the vagina has a multilayered epithelium on the surface.

When analyzing data, many factors are taken into account, any changes in the ratio of cells and also their internal structure.

The standard interpretation of the results can have a cytological examination output in the form of one or more of five variants:

  • Cells are unchanged.
  • The changes found in a cytological study indicate the presence of an inflammatory process.
  • There is an indication of dysplasia( some cells with enlarged cores).
  • Precancerous state( some cells have abnormalities in the state of chromosomes and cytoplasm).
  • In the biological material, the presence of cancer cells was detected.

The average cost of the procedure

The cost of the procedure depends on the pricing policy of the clinic, where the patient addressed, the set of works to be performed and other certain features.On average, cytological research will cost 780 rubles.

The technique of sampling material for cytology is shown in this video: