Concussion - signs and treatment at home
Concussion is one of the easy forms of brain injury, which causes damage to the brain vessels.All disorders of brain activity are dangerous and require increased attention and treatment.
Concussion occurs only with aggressive mechanical action on the head - for example, this can happen when a person falls and strikes his head on the floor.Physicians still can not give a precise definition of the mechanism of development of brain concussion symptoms, because even when CT is performed, doctors do not see any pathological changes in the tissues and the cortex of the organ.
It is important to remember that treatment of concussion is not recommended at home.First of all, it is necessary to apply to a medical institution to a specialist and only after reliable diagnosis of damages and their severity, it is possible, in agreement with the doctor, to use methods of treatment at home.
What is it?
Concussion - damage to the bones of the skull or soft tissue, such as brain tissue, blood vessels, nerves, meninge
As already mentioned, a concussion can be obtained by falling, hitting the head or neck, a sharp slowing of the head movement in such situations:
- in everyday life;
- in production;
- in the children's team;
- when practicing in sports sections;
- for road traffic accidents;
- in domestic conflicts with assault;
- in military conflicts;
- with barotrauma;
- for injuries with rotation( rotation) of the head.
As a result of a brain injury, the brain changes its location for a short time and almost immediately returns to it.In this case, the mechanism of inertia and features of fixation of brain structures in the cranial box come into force - not having enough time for rapid movement, some of the nerve processes can stretch, lose contact with other cells.
The pressure in different parts of the skull changes, blood supply, and hence nutrition of nerve cells, may be temporarily impaired.An important fact with concussion is that all changes are reversible.There are no ruptures, hemorrhages, no swelling.
The most characteristic signs of brain concussion are:
- confusion, inhibition;
- headache, dizziness, ringing in the ears;
- incoherent hindered speech;
- nausea or vomiting;
- movement coordination disorder;
- diplopia( double vision in the eyes);
- inability to concentrate attention;
- light and phonopathy;
- memory loss.
The concussion has three degrees of severity, from the lightest first to the severe third.About what the symptoms of brain concussion are most common, we'll look further.
A slight concussion of the brain
In the case of a slight concussion in an adult, the following symptoms appear:
- severe head or neck injury( a blow "detonates" from the cervical vertebrae to the head);
- short-term - a few seconds - loss of consciousness, often there are concussions and without loss of consciousness;
- effect of "sparks from the eyes";
- dizziness, worse when turning the head and tilting;
- effect of the "old film" before the eyes.
Symptoms of brain concussion
Immediately after trauma, the patient has cerebral concussion symptoms:
- Nausea and vomiting reflex in the case where it is not known about what happened to a person and he is unconscious.
- One of the most important symptoms is a loss of consciousness.The time of loss of consciousness can be long or, conversely, short.
- Brain trauma is indicated by headache and impaired coordination, and the person is dizzy.
- With a concussion of the brain, pupils of different shapes are possible.
- A person wants to sleep or, on the contrary, is hyperactive.
- Direct confirmation of concussion - convulsions.
- If the victim has recovered, he may experience discomfort in bright light or loud sound.
- When talking to a person, he may have confusion.Perhaps he does not even remember what happened before the accident.
- Sometimes the speech may not be connected.
During the first 24 hours after injury, the following signs of brain concussion may be observed in a person:
- sleep disturbance;
- violation of orientation in time and space;
- pallor of the skin;
- lack of appetite;
- inability to concentrate the look;
- feeling uncomfortable;
- sensation of lack of firmness in the legs;
- flushes the blood to the face;
It should be remembered that not all patient symptoms will be found, which are typical for concussion of the brain, all depending on the severity of damage and the general condition of the human body.This is why an experienced specialist should determine the severity of a brain injury.
What to do if you have a brain concussion at home
Prior to the arrival of physicians, first aid for the victim at home should be to immobilize and ensure that he is completely at rest.Under your head, you can put something soft, apply a cold compress or ice to your head.
If the person who suffers a concussion continues to be unconscious, the so-called saving position is preferable:
- on the right side,
- the head is thrown back, the face is turned to the ground,
- the left arm and leg are bent at right angles in the elbow and knee joints(It is necessary to exclude fractures of extremities and a backbone beforehand).
This position, ensuring free passage of air into the lungs and unobstructed discharge of fluid from the mouth outwards, prevents the violation of breathing due to tongue twisting, airflow in the respiratory tract of saliva, blood, vomit.If there are bleeding wounds on the head, apply a bandage.
For the treatment of concussion, the injured person is hospitalized without fail.Bed rest for such patients is not less than 12 days.During this time, the patient is prohibited any intellectual and psychoemotional loads( reading, watching TV, listening to music, etc.).
Degree of gravity
The division of the concussion of the brain by severity is relatively arbitrary - the main criterion for this is the period of time that the victim conducts unconscious:
- 1 degree - slight concussion in which loss of consciousness lasts up to 5 minutes or absent.The general condition of a person is satisfactory, neurological symptoms( violation of movements, speech, sensory organs) are practically absent.
- 2nd degree - Consciousness may be absent until 15 minutes.The general condition is moderate, there is vomiting, nausea, and neurological symptoms.
- 3 degree - expressed in terms of volume or depth of tissue damage, consciousness is absent for more than 15 minutes( sometimes a person does not come to consciousness until 6 hours from the moment of injury), the general condition is severe with severe impairment of the function of all organs.
It should be remembered that any injured person who has suffered a head injury should be examined by a doctor - even with a minor, at first glance, trauma, intracranial hematoma may develop, the symptoms of which will progress after a while( "light interval"), and increase steadily.With a concussion of the brain, almost all the symptoms disappear under the influence of ongoing treatment - this takes time.
In case of adequate treatment and patient's compliance with the recommendations of doctors after concussion of the brain, in most cases, complete recovery and recovery of working capacity.However, some patients may experience certain complications.
- The most serious consequence of concussion is the post-comon syndrome, which develops after a period of time( days, weeks, months) after CCT and tortures a person all his life with constant attacks of intense headache, dizziness, nervousness, insomnia.
- Irritability, psychoemotional instability, increased excitability, aggression, but quick wit.
- Convulsive syndrome, outwardly reminiscent of epilepsy, depriving the right to drive and admission to certain professions.
- Pronounced vegetative-vascular disorders, manifested by irregular blood pressure, dizziness and headache, hot flashes, sweating and fast fatigue.
- Hypersensitivity to alcoholic beverages.
- Depressive states, neuroses, fears and phobias, sleep disturbance.
Timely high-quality treatment will help to minimize the consequences of brain concussion.
Treatment of concussion
Like any trauma and brain disease, concussion should be treated under the supervision of a neurologist, traumatologist, surgeon who monitor any signs and development of the disease.Treatment implies mandatory bed rest - 2-3 weeks for an adult, 3-4 weeks for a child at least.
It often happens that a patient after a concussion of the brain has an acute sensitivity to bright light, loud sounds.It is necessary to isolate it from this, so as not to aggravate the symptoms.
Inpatient, the patient is mainly for the purpose of monitoring him, where he undergoes preventive and symptomatic treatment:
- Analgesics( baralgin, sedalgin, ketorol).
- Soothing agents( tinctures of valerian and motherwort, tranquilizers - relanium, phenazepam, etc.).
- For dizziness, bellaspan, bellataminal, cinnarizine are prescribed.
- To relieve the general tension, sulfuric acid magnesia is good, and diuretics for the prevention of cerebral edema.
- It is advisable to use vascular drugs( trental, cavinton), nootropics( nootropil, piracetam) and B vitamins.
In addition to symptomatic treatment, therapy aimed at restoring disturbed brain functions and preventing complications is usually prescribed.The appointment of such therapy is possible not earlier than 5-7 days after the injury.
Patients are advised to take nootropic( Nootropil, Pyracetam) and vasotropic( Cavinton, Theonikol) drugs.They have a beneficial effect on cerebral circulation and improve brain activity.Their reception is shown within a few months after discharge from the hospital.
The entire period of rehabilitation, lasting depending on the severity of the conditions from 2 to 5 weeks, the victim must follow all the doctor's recommendations and strictly observe bed rest.Also, any physical and mental stresses are categorically prohibited.During the year, a neurologist needs to be monitored to prevent complications.
Remember, after suffering a shock, even in mild form, there may be various complications in the form of post-traumatic syndrome, and in people who abuse alcohol epilepsy.To avoid these troubles, you should see a doctor throughout the year.