Folliculitis: Symptoms, Differential Diagnosis, Treatment Methods, Prevention, Complications

August 17, 2017 23:00 | Pyoderma

Folliculitis occurs quite often in the practice of dermatologists.This disease causes a lot of discomfort, violates the psychoemotional state of the person who is ill( especially if they are female).So, let's find out what folliculitis is, and whether it's infectious or not.

Features of the disease

The defeat of the hair follicle, its middle, deep sections, which develops purulent inflammation, experts call folliculitis.In this pathology, the etiology can be different:

  • viral;
  • is parasitic;
  • fungal;
  • bacterial.

This pathology develops as pustules, these formations can be single, multiple.Inside such pustules comes a hair.In place of the burst pustules, ulcers appear.If the hair follicle is deeply injured, a scar will remain after healing.

Folliculitis is included in the group of purulent diseases of the dermis( pyoderma).In this group also there are streptococcal impetigo, hydradenitis, sycosis, streptoderma.There is a strong spread of this lesion of the dermis in countries with a hot climate.T

he risk group includes people belonging to the disadvantaged population.Insufficient sanitation, hot climate are ideal for the development of infection.

Sometimes this disease begins to develop in the complication of ostiophalliculitis. When the infection progresses deep inside the follicle, folliculitis occurs.

Symptoms of of foot folliculitis are indicated in this video:

Classification

Given the etiology of infection, the specialists identified the following disease groups:

  • fungal;
  • bacterial;
  • syphilitic;
  • is parasitic;
  • is a viral.

Causes of folliculitis

The disease develops as a result of the multiplication of bacteria, most often staphylococci.There are cases of folliculitis development for such reasons:

  • bacteria;
  • viruses;
  • gonorrhea;
  • fungal infection of the dermis( candida, dermatophytes, phytosporum);
  • parasites( tick);
  • syphilis.

Infection usually falls inside the hair follicle through minor damage to the dermis( abrasions, scratches, excoriation, wetting).More often the disease develops in those who suffer from dermatoses:

  • prurigo;
  • atopic dermatitis;
  • Durhythm Dermatitis;
  • Eczema;
  • allergic contact dermatitis.

They constantly comb the dermis, creating ideal conditions for the penetration of bacteria.In the risk group, those who suffer from excessive sweating.With weakening of the body, infection is much easier to penetrate into the hair follicle.

Among the factors contributing to the onset of this pathology, doctors singled out: the long-term exposure of chemicals( technical oils, greases, kerosene) to

  • .
  • immunodeficiencies;
  • immunosuppressive therapy;
  • diabetes mellitus;
  • application of glucocorticosteroids.

Symptoms of folliculitis and treatment of such an ailment in children and adults are described below.

Symptoms of candidal folliculitis are described in this video:

Symptoms

Infiltration begins in the lesion area, redness appears.Then a pustule is formed, which differs in a conical shape.It is permeated with gun hair.Inside the pustule contains pus.After opening the pustule, the pus flows, an ulcer is formed, and on it is a bloody purulent crust.

After the crust comes together, a scar appears, hyperpigmentation.If the lesion is more superficial, scars do not remain. Development, the resolution of the follicle lasts about a week.

Folliculitis is characterized by a multiple character.Eruptions affect the dermis in such areas:

  • head;
  • feet;
  • axillary cavities;
  • groin;
  • face.

When the disease develops, patients complain of:

  • itching of different intensity;
  • soreness.

Each form of folliculitis has its own peculiarities:

  1. Staphylococcal lesion occurs in the area of ​​bristly hair( chin, near the mouth).The disease is more common in men shaving a beard, mustache.
  2. Syphilitic form. Its development goes against the background of syphilis( secondary).Alopecia can occur in the area of ​​the mustache, beard, scalp.
  3. The pseudomonasal form of appears after taking a hot bath.It appears as an intense rash that affects the face, trunk( upper part).
  4. The gonorrhea form is a complication of gonorrhea that has not been treated.It is localized mainly on the perineum( in women), in the area of ​​the foreskin( in men).
  5. The dermatophyte form of begins to appear on the stratum corneum of the epidermis in the form of inflammation.Gradually, the infection spreads to the follicle, the hair shaft.Often appears in the presence of favus, trichophytosis.After healing, scars remain.
  6. Impetigo Bokhart develops when there is maceration.Most often occurs as a result of applying warming compresses, in the presence of hyperhidrosis.
  7. Candidiasis of appears due to the use of occlusive dressings that are required for fever, bedridden patients.
  8. The herpetic form of is manifested in the form of vesicles near the mouth of the hair follicles.Affects the nasolabial triangle, chin.The disease is more common in men.

Diagnostics

If a suspicion of folliculitis develops, a specialist should do the following: examine the hair follicle;Establish the etiology of the disease;Identify the pathogen;To detect( if available) concomitant diseases, which are considered to be the ideal soil for the development of infection.

Dermatologists must examine the rash, conduct a dermatoscopy that will show the depth of the lesion.The specialist can also refer the patient to the release of the pustule to be removed, which will be required for:

  • for mushrooms;
  • bacteriological culture;
  • microspores;
  • studies on pale treponemia.

There is a need for a diffodiagnosis.Folliculitis should be distinguished from such pathologies as syphilis, gonorrhea.In this case, the doctor appoints:

  • RPR test.
  • PCR diagnostics.

If necessary, the specialist will prescribe blood for sugar, immunogram.In addition to gonorrhea, syphilis, the disease should be differentiated from the following:

  • pharmacological toxicodermia;
  • furunculosis;
  • pink lichen Zhibera;
  • frinoderms;
  • streptococcal impetigo;
  • perifolliculitis of Hoffmann;
  • Nodulocystic acne.

Treatment, which requires hair folliculitis, as well as an ailment on the legs, pubic, face, back, skin, is described below.

Treatment

Therapy is prescribed by a specialist taking into account the etiology of the disease.If pathology was provoked by bacteria, ointments containing antibiotics are needed.If the disease provoked fungi, use antifungal medicines.Herpetic folliculitis is treated with Acyclovir.

On how to treat folliculitis in a therapeutic way, read below.

Therapeutic way

To prevent the spread of infection through the dermis, patients are prescribed UFD.On how to cure folliculitis with ointments, antibiotics and other medications, read below.

Medicated

If a disease is detected at its early stage of development, it is sufficient to conduct local therapy.It involves the treatment of the dermis through solutions of aniline dyes:

  • "Zelenka".
  • "Fukarcin".
  • "Methylene blue".

To prevent infection, doctors recommend that a healthy dermis be treated with boric alcohol, salicylic alcohol.

  • If the disease is severe, recurrent, systemic therapy is required: Staphylococcal folliculitis is treated with Dicloxacillin, Cephalexin, and Erythromycin.For local treatment, they use "Levomycetin Alcohol", "Trimistin", "Yodditzerin", "Bactroban", "Miramistin".
  • In severe psevdomonadnoy forms, specialists use "Ciprofloxacin".
  • Antifungal medicines( "Itraconazole", "Ketoconazole", locally used "Miconazole", "Clotrimazole")
  • are mandatory in case of a fungal form. Candidiasis is treatable with "Itraconazole", "Fluconazole".
  • The dermatophyte form is treated with terbinafine.
  • To eliminate demodicosis, you can use "Benzyl benzoate cream", "Yoddicerin", "Sulfur Ointments".
  • Also, the doctor carries out diabetes mellitus therapy, diagnosed immunodeficiency conditions.

On whether folliculitis is amenable to treatment with folk remedies at home, read below.

By popular methods

Before using funds from the people, you should consult your doctor.The healers recommend the following:

  • calendula;
  • tea tree oil;
  • gruel from leaves of a thistle;
  • chamomile broth.

Prevention of the disease

The most important method of prevention is caring for the dermis.The following recommendations should also be adhered to:

  1. Observe hygiene rules.
  2. It's less sweet, salty, spicy.
  3. Eat balanced.
  4. Timely processing the wound, microtrauma.
  5. Use protective clothing in places of severe pollution.
  6. Ensure that the body does not overheat.
  7. Regularly ventilate the room.

Complications

If the patient does not treat the lesion, adhere to hygiene, there may be various complications:

  • carbuncle;
  • boil;
  • abscess;
  • dermatophytosis of the dermis of the head;
  • hydradenite;
  • phlegmon.

Staphylococcal folliculitis( in men) can be complicated by the development of sycosis.In rare cases, very dangerous complications can occur:

  • nephritis;
  • meningitis;
  • is an inflammatory disease of the lung.

Forecast

Disease in adult patients is quite easy to eliminate.It is more dangerous for children, babies.In infants, folliculitis can cause such complications:

  • meningitis;
  • pneumonia;
  • nephritis.

It is better to adhere to the recommendations of specialists, not to be exposed once again to the risk of infection.At the slightest inflammation of the dermis, a dermatologist should be seen.

Features decalting folliculitis are shown in this video: