Dermatophytosis: causes, symptoms, treatment, prognosis

August 17, 2017 23:00 | Mycosis

  • Anthropophilic .The defeat of fungi of this group is epidemic.Representatives of this group are distributed through household items.These include:
    • Trichophyton menta-grophytes var.Interdigitale, Trichophyton violaceum, Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton schoenleinii.
    • Epidermophyton floccosum.
    • Microsporam audouini.
  • Zoophilic .Fungus penetrates to people from pets( by contact, through care items).The following types are included in the group:
    • Microsporum canis.
    • Trichophyton men-tagrophytes var.Mentagrophytes, Trichophyton equinum, Trichophyton verrucosum.
  • Geofilling .Representatives of this group fall on the epithelium from the soil in which they are located.The group includes:
    • Microsporum gypseum,
    • Microsporum nanum.

Symptoms

The disease we are considering has the main symptoms, individual for each type of disease.The main include:

  1. Red peeling formations( they are characteristic of epidermophytosis).
  2. Many small foci are observed with trichophytosis.Der
    mis edematous in the affected area, small scales are formed on it.As for the hair, they fade, weaken, a white cover forms at their base.

Now consider the symptoms of the disease that are specific to each individual kind of dermatophytosis:

  • Dermatophytosis on the feet, hands is characterized by the appearance of blisters, redness, peeling, erythema, and keratinization of the skin.
  • Dermatofit of the trunk is characterized by the appearance of peeling with clear boundaries.These formations can be large, small.
  • Dermatophytosis on the groin of the ( inguinal region) is typical for the appearance of large-sized scabs, erythema.On the edges of lesions appear papules, pustules.The areas of damage are of different colors( brown, yellow-brown, red).
  • Onychomycosis , arising on the nails of the hands, stop, manifests itself in the compaction of the nail plate, its destruction at the edges.Nail plates become greyish-dirty in color.
  • Dermatophytosis of large folds of , smooth skin is manifested in the appearance of foci, which is characterized by ring-shaped growth, scalloped formations.In the central part of the hearth, which is similar to the ring, there is peeling.

Diagnostics

Dermatophytosis To correctly select a course of therapy, specialists should conduct research aimed at determining the causative agent of the disease.To this end, laboratory assistants take the material( nails, scales, hair), which is then treated with an alkaline solution.This procedure allows you to detect the fungus, because after treatment with alkali during microscopy will be visible only the mass of fungi.

In addition to the basic diagnostic method, the following is additionally used:

  1. Microscopy.
  2. Sowing
  3. Wood Lamp.

Microscopy

  1. Examination of the seized material from the affected area after treatment with potassium hydroxide.For the diagnosis take dermis, nails, hairs.Dermal fence is performed by means of a scalpel, the edge of a slide.Initially remove the top layer of the epidermis, then put these scales on the central part of the slide, cover with another glass( coverslips).
  2. To remove material for analysis from the nail plate, laboratory technicians use a scalpel.Specialists perform the sampling of material from different parts of the nail plate for various forms of the disease( from the inner region of the nail, the material is taken with the distal-lateral subungual onychomycosis, with the outer one, if the superficial form of onychomycosis is determined, and the material is also taken from the inside with proximal subungual injury).
  3. For research take broken hairs by means of tweezers, needle holder.

To process the withdrawn material take potassium hydroxide( 5 - 20%).The agent drips onto the tip of the glass, it under the action of capillary forces flows between the panes.When heated, bubbles form.After such clarification, the study is carried out using a microscope of the material taken.The mycelium of fungi is similar to the accumulation of thin tubes.Inside these tubes there are partitions.

Sowing

To conduct the research, flakes removed from the infected dermis, scraping from the nails, hairs will be required.Cultivation of fungi is performed on a Saburo medium, which consists of glucose, peptone, agar-agar.

Wood lamp

The procedure is carried out in a dark room.If the hair is affected by Microsporum spp., Specialists will observe a green glow.

Differential diagnostics with such diseases may also be prescribed:

  • Erythema.
  • Ring-shaped granuloma.
  • Erythrasm.
  • Psoriasis.

And now we learn how to treat dermatophytosis.

This video will show you how to get rid of nail fungus and feet:

Treatment

General principles

Therapy of dermatophytosis is carried out by means of various antifungal agents intended for internal use, as well as antiseptics, antimycotics designed forLocal therapy.

From systemic drugs, experts are prescribed to combat dermatophytes:

  • "Terbinafine".
  • Griseofulvin.

With drugs that have a wide range of action included in the class of azoles, the following are prescribed for dermatophyte therapy:

  • "Itraconazole".
  • "Ketoconazole".
  • "Fluconazole".

Of the modern antimycotics "Terbinafine" is very effective.About ointments for the treatment of head dermatophytosis we will talk below.

Hairy head

Dermatophytosis Treatment of dermatophytosis of the scalp is more difficult.Systemic therapy is necessary for the destruction of dermatophytes.Therapy of dermatophytosis that occurs on the scalp is carried out with the following preparations:

  • Griseofulvin.
  • "Terbinafine".
  • "Fluconazole".
  • "Itraconazole".

About treatment of dermatophyte of feet, hands we will talk below.

Nail, stop and brush

These same drugs are also effective in the treatment of dermatophyte nails, feet, brushes.The duration of therapy depends on such factors:

  • prevalence of the lesion;
  • form of the disease;
  • age of the patient.

Prevention of the disease

To avoid unpleasant fungal infections, you should adhere to such preventive measures:

  1. Compliance with dryness, cleanliness of the skin.
  2. Do not use items of doubtful purity( in the gymnasium, swimming pool).
  3. Keep track of the cleanliness of the underwear, clothes.
  4. After carrying out water procedures, wipe your feet dry.
  5. Use only your personal items.
  6. To conduct skin treatment after visits to gyms, swimming pools, baths.
  7. Monitor the health of pets( if you suspect a lichen, contact a veterinarian).
  8. Walk on the beach, in public places with slippers.

Complications

This disease is not life threatening. The main unpleasant moment is the tendency of the disease to recur, as well as the fact that it has a chronic course.

Forecast

The disease can last from a few months to a year or more.Full recovery is possible with the correct approach of the specialist to the therapy( systemic, complex, repeat).

More information about dermatophyte is contained in the video with Elena Malysheva: