Immunoenzyme analysis( ELISA): price, decoding, principle of the method, reaction
By presenting a modern type of laboratory test, ELISA, or enzyme immunoassay, it is possible to find specific antibodies or antigens in the blood for certain diseases.This allows us to detect both the etiology of the disease and determine its stage.At the same time, the results of this kind of research can be issued both quantitatively and qualitatively.So, let's consider in detail the principle of the method of enzyme immunoassay, its methodology and essence.
What is an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
Assigned for the most comprehensive assessment of the health status, an enzyme-linked immunoassay allows you to assess the general health and evaluate its protective functions. This laboratory test allows you to diagnose infectious, autoimmune, hematological pathologies in the analysis of blood.
The essence of the enzyme immunoassay is considered in the video below:
To whom it is assigned
This study can be assigned to those patients who are diagnosed with the following diseases:
- allergic reactions;
- diseases of a viral origin, which include hepatitis, Epstein-Barr virus, herpes, cytomegalovirus;
- diseases that are transmitted sexually - chlamydia, trichomonas, syphilis, ureaplasma, mycoplasma;
- oncological pathology;
- preoperative complex examination.
The doctor can be assigned this analysis to establish the stage of the existing disease, which allows timely corrections in the treatment used.And high accuracy of the received data allows to have maximally expanded picture of health.At the same time, the acquisition of data after a study is carried out in a very short period of time, which allows you to track the dynamics of the pathological process.
Why take such tests
Because the ELISA analysis of blood can provide a significant amount of information about the state of health and pathological processes occurring in the body, it is the ability to fully take into account the baseline data( general health, disease stage, dynamicsThe development of the pathological process, the indicator of the effectiveness of the therapy used) when drawing up the treatment regimen.
For this reason, to obtain the most pronounced result of treatment and the fastest termination of the pathological process in the body, an ELISA blood test is administered.Serious diseases of the immune system, the presence of antigens in the blood and the causes of allergy based on the findings can be cured more quickly, using the most effective methods.
The purpose of the ELISA assay is performed with a variety of pathologies, and it should only be done according to the doctor's prescription.The frequency of the analysis is also set by the doctor, and when giving blood for an ELISA analysis the picture of the disease is most complete. Since it is possible to obtain the dynamics of the course of the disease when this test is submitted more than once, the delivery of blood from three to five times can most often be prescribed. This makes it possible to compare the number of antibodies in the blood at different time intervals.
Types of this procedure
There are several types of enzyme immunoassay.They differ in the form of the taken liquid from the human body, on the basis of which the study of its composition and the presence of certain antigens is carried out.
For this analysis, not only human blood but also its other fluids can be taken for analysis:
- amniotic fluid,
- spinal fluid,
- vitreous contents,
- mucus from urethra and cervical canal.
The operation itself for taking a certain type of fluid is standard and is carried out in a day hospital.
Indications for the
Usually, the ELISA analysis is prescribed by the doctor if necessary to obtain a detailed picture of the current disease, taking place in any form: chronic, sluggish or acute.And the indications for this type of analysis can be the following states and treatment objectives:
- search for antigens of certain diseases;
- definition of hormonal status;
- revealing the hepatitis virus in the body;
- study for oncomarkers;
- search for antibodies to any type of infectious disease;
- examination for the presence of autoimmune lesions of the body.
The enzyme immunoassay is also used to detect the presence of helminthic and intestinal parasite damage and the presence of allergic manifestations.With the chosen method of treatment of the existing disease, this analysis allows you to see the dynamics of the cure process, as well as make the necessary adjustments to it.
For an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, see the video below:
No contraindications for immunosorbent assays have been identified to date.
In pregnancy, when there is a constant change in the blood levels of hormones, repeated analysis is necessary to confirm the result.Newborns and infants may also have incorrect analysis data: during fetal development, certain types of antibodies can penetrate the fetal blood through the mother's placenta.Therefore, their presence in the analysis taken should not be considered a sign of an existing infection.
Carrying out the procedure for taking any kind of liquid from the human body does not bring any negative effects on the body.Complete sterility when performing manipulations avoids the possibility of infection by any kind of disease.
Any kind of human body fluid can be used for analysis.However, the most common is serum.Blood is taken from the patient on an empty stomach, all kinds of drugs are completely excluded, since they can significantly affect the overall picture of the result.The discontinuation of specific treatment, prescribed for antibacterial, antiviral, antiparasitic effects, is carried out a week before the study.
How the procedure passes, the sensations during it
For the ELISA analysis, the patient's blood is taken strictly on an empty stomach: one should not take food in any form at least one hour before the procedure.The analysis is taken from the ulnar vein.
The presence of any diseases and medications is notified to the doctor in advance, most often the drugs at the time of blood donation will be canceled.The sensations during the procedure are similar to taking blood for biochemical analysis.
Below is the interpretation of the results and the norm of the enzyme immunoassay.
Interpretation of results
ELISA diagnostics allows to determine the presence of infection in the body, the activity of the pathological process and the etiology of the infection. Rapid acquisition of the result of the analysis( during the day) is one of the advantages of this type of research.
The process of decoding the information received is performed by a physician.In this case, it should be taken into account that the correctness of the results obtained for the dynamics of any processes is guaranteed when passing the analyzes in one laboratory.
The price of enzyme immunoassay( ELISA) for parasites and other pathologies will be discussed further.
Average cost of procedure
The average price of an ELISA test depends on the direction of the analysis and the determination of specific values.So, the determination of serological markers of infectious diseases of various types( anti-HAV IgG, anti-HAV IgM, HBsAg) will cost from 200 to 320 rubles and is carried out within 2 working days.The indicator of the cost of this procedure is also considered its advantage: the availability of prices for any type of research allows you to conduct research at any size of the budget.
The cost of an ELISA study depends on the policy of the medical institution, but it should be considered a public procedure to obtain a detailed picture of the existing disease and provide the most complete treatment.
For the norms and characteristics of the ELISA test, see the video below: