Chloasma: symptoms, methods of diagnosing the disease, treatment, prevention

August 12, 2017 15:31 | Pigmentation

Among all diseases of the skin should pay special attention to the chloasma.This disease manifests itself in the excessive pigmentation of the epidermis.This pathology is caused by an increase in the level of the hormone estrogen.It can also occur in people with a disease of the genitourinary system, kidneys.Sometimes, chloasma can occur during pregnancy.About the causes of the appearance of chloasma in children and adults, its treatment and removal will tell you today.

Features of the disease

This disease, like chloasma, refers to focal.The considered hyperpigmentation of the epidermis has different sizes, the spots are often localized precisely on the face.Chloasma is usually clearly delineated, the spots can be of different shades of brown( light brown, brownish, brown).

Experts consider Chloazm as the acquired pigmented spot. It is formed with excess deposition on the epidermis of a pigment such as melanin .This disease is a frequent violation of the pigmentation of the dermis.

According to statistics, the frequency of occurrence in women is much higher than that of men.To the specialists with this disease many women addressed, who had inflammations in the field of gynecology.In pregnant women, this pathology occurs quite often.This is due to metabolic, as well as endocrine disorders in the body of the future mother.

The specialist in the video will tell you what is chloasma in the video below:

In children

In children, chloasma is very rare.Its occurrence provokes such factors as:

  • neuroendocrine disorders;
  • deficiency in liver function;
  • impaired exchange function.

Hyperpigmented spots with irregular contours appear on the skin of babies.These symmetrical spots are very large, they are painted in a dark yellow, brownish-brown color.Most often the lesion affects the following areas:

  • forehead;
  • around the eyes;
  • cheeks;
  • whiskey;
  • around the mouth.

Disease in girls is more common in puberty, before the first menstruation.If the pathology is located around the mouth, it is called chloasma virginura periorale.

Classification of chloasma

By localization of hyperpigmentation

This disease has a classification that is based on the localization of hyperpigmentation on the facial epidermis:

  • Centrifugal .The most common form of chloasma.She suffers from about 70% of the sick.The spots cover the nose, cheeks, forehead, chin.
  • Molar .This form is less common, in 20% of cases.Spots cover the nose, cheeks.
  • Mandibular .This form is found only in 10% of cases.The spots cover the jaw line.

On the depth of the spots

There is also a classification based on the depth of spots in the layers of the epithelium.Given this feature, the following forms are distinguished:

  • Epidermal .This form is characterized by an increased color contrast on the border between the affected and healthy skin.This pigmentation is much easier to heal than other forms.
  • Dermal .With this form of hyperpigmentation, the patient does not have a clear boundary between the affected and healthy skin on the epithelium.Such pigmentation spots are very difficult to remove.
  • Mixed ( epidermal-dermal).Pigmentation is observed in some parts of the epithelium.
  • Asymptomatic .This form of the disease is more common in those people whose skin is darker.Spots on the epidermis in this case can be seen only under the lamp of Wood.

Causes of

Hloazma Chloasma appears on the skin for a variety of reasons.The provocateur of the disease can be, both ovarian dysfunction and CNS disease.

We indicate the most common reasons for the formation of hyperpigmentation:

  • Pregnancy.This reason is considered the most popular.The spots are formed under the influence of the hormonal changes in the future mother.
  • The instability of the hormonal background, which is observed in adolescence, especially during puberty.
  • Diseases of the central nervous system( encephalitis).
  • Hypovitaminosis / vitamin deficiency that occurs when there is a shortage of vitamins C, B9.
  • Liver pathologies( cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis, hepatitis B).
  • Invasive diseases( malaria, tuberculosis).
  • Inflammation of the genitourinary system.
  • Frequent visits to the solarium, regular exposure to sunlight.
  • Gynecological problems( endometritis, andexitis, oophoritis, colpitis, salpingitis).

The appearance of pigmented spots is considered a warning of a malfunction of some internal organs.

Symptoms of

The appearance of a pathology such as chloasma is indicated by local symptoms.They are manifested in the formation of pigmented spots that do not protrude above the level of the dermis.These spots can have different colors: light brown, brown, dark brown, yellow.

Dimensions of the stains are different.Their boundaries are uneven, but clear.Sometimes they cover a couple of millimeters, centimeters.In rare cases, the lesion extends to entire areas of the face.More often pigmentation has an isolated character, only occasionally are formed pigmented zones of large sizes.

Perioral chloasma is characterized by the formation of symmetrical brown spots that surround the mouth.Most often this disease worries women.Bright pigmentation over time extends to the area of ​​the chin, nasolabial folds.

Spots do not cause the patient to have an itch or burning sensation.The only subjective feeling that disturbs a patient is psychological discomfort.

Diagnosis and treatment of chloasma on the abdomen, hands, face and other parts of the body are discussed below.

Diagnosis

To establish the diagnosis of "chloasma", the examiner conducts an examination of the patient, interrogates him to exclude the post-inflammatory, congenital nature of the detected hyperpigmentation.In addition to examining the dermatologist, which will be required if hyperpigmentation is found on the skin, the patient will undergo a series of studies:

  • blood for sex hormones;
  • general blood test;
  • skiascopy;
  • analysis to determine the level of bilirubin;
  • ultrasound of the peritoneum;
  • blood to determine thyroid hormone levels;
  • Gastroscopy;
  • study of liver enzymes;
  • dermatoscopy;
  • blood test for the definition of invasive diseases, infection;
  • analysis for dysbiosis;
  • Ultrasound of organs producing hormones.

Specialists prescribe differential diagnostics to exclude a patient from developing one of the following diseases:

  • border pigment nevus;
  • Mongolian spot;
  • secondary hyperpigmentation;
  • giant pigment nevus;
  • professional melasma.

How to get rid of age spots, this video story will tell:

Treatment

To cure such an unpleasant disease as chloasma, the help of different specialists will be required:

  • cosmetologist;
  • dermatologist;
  • gynecologist;
  • endocrinologist.

You can treat hyperpigmentation by cosmetic correction, taking medication, using whitening ointments.Let's tell you how to bring the chloasma to the lyceums of other parts of the body below.

Therapeutic method

Hloazma-2

  • The patient should definitely reduce the time spent in the sun.
  • In addition, it is necessary to use cosmetics less often, which contain ultraviolet filters.
  • To suppress the synthesis, transport of melanin inside cells, appoint mesotherapy procedures, cosmetic products containing bleaching components( azelaic, ascorbic, glycolic acid, arbutin, rucinol).
  • To destroy the pigment, selective photothermolysis, laser radiation is carried out.

Next, consider the treatment of chloasma with medical preparations

Medication

Therapy of hyperpigmentation by medicinal method consists in the use of the following medicines:

  • Hormonal contraceptives;
  • Vitamins( C, folic acid, B);
  • Exfoliating cream( "Cleanness", white mercury ointment);
  • Lemon, lactic acid for peeling;
  • Whitening cream( hydroquinone ointment, "Ahremin", "Melan", sulfuric ointment, mercury-bismuth ointment).

To reduce the rate of melanin formation, the following are prescribed:

  • Tyrosinase inhibitors Arbutin, Coic Acid;
  • derivatives of vitamin C;
  • inhibitors of pigment synthesis in melanocytes "Hydroquinone", "Azelaic acid".

Next, we will tell you which cosmetic procedure will save you from chloasma.

Other methods

For therapy of chlorosis also use phototherapy, laser therapy.But such methods of therapy revealed many side effects.One of them is the hyperpigmentation of the treated area.

Recently, such methods of controlling chloasma as follows have become popular:

  • biorevitalization using hyaluronic acid;
  • ANA-peeling;
  • phenol peeling;
  • dermabrasion;
  • mesotherapy with "bleaching cocktails".
  • cryotherapy.

We will not talk about how to get rid of chloasma at home, as such methods are ineffective.

Prevention of the disease

  1. To prevent the development of the disease under consideration, it is necessary to be less likely to go under the sun's rays, and also not often to visit the solarium.Going out to the street it is recommended to treat the skin with photo-protective creams "Shield", "Spa", "Ray", "From sunburn".It is desirable to use these means in the sunny seasons of the year.
  2. You should also avoid wearing clothing that rubs the skin when it comes into contact with it.
  3. Avoid contact with chemicals that can corrode epithelium( engine oil, gasoline).

a photo

This cosmetic defect, like chlorosis, according to a survey of specialists, does not pose a health hazard to the patient.

Forecast

Some forms of the disease are easier to treat( epidermal), while others( dermal) are more difficult.

In pregnant women, chloasma usually passes by itself, without treatment.

The harm of the solarium and the appearance of chloasma will be described by Elena Malysheva in this video: