Localized skin itching: causes and treatment, remedies for it

August 12, 2017 15:31 | Symptoms Of Disease

The sensation of itching is one of the types of skin analyzers, similar to such forms of skin sensations as touch, burning, tingling, pain, in which there is a physiological reflex of scratching the skin.This article will tell you in detail about the types, causes and treatment of folk remedies of localized itching of the skin, providing the text with useful photos.

What is localized pruritus

Along with pain, itching performs an extremely important function of protection, being a sign for the immediate elimination of substances that damage the skin. Itching localized, unlike generalized( spread), develops on a limited area of ​​the skin.

  • Condition of itching - unpleasant, irritating, similar to painful - is provoked by mechanical, chemical, thermal, electrical stimulation of nerve fibers emerging in the border area between the epidermis and the dermis.
  • Excitation of nerve endings occurs either directly or indirectly - when releasing mediators such as histamine, adrenaline, serotonin, kallikrein
    , neuropeptides, opioids, cytokines, eicosanoids, and also in the presence of helminthic, tick-borne, tumor and other toxins.
  • If the pain causes a natural reaction of "removing" from the source, itching affects the person as an irritating skin "object", which must be eliminated.It provokes a reflex of "treating" the itching area in the form of carding, rubbing, tweaking, which leads to quick, but brief satisfaction.

This is explained by the fact that in the process of combing the nerve endings receive stronger pulses, suppressing weak signals from itching.Intensive painful itching, for example, with neurodermatitis, patients often relieve, causing severe damage to the skin, tearing it, which leads to the replacement of severe itching with a feeling of severe pain.

Its classification

Itching-itching-itching The classification of pruritus in practical medicine is based on the types of mechanism of its occurrence.The following forms of itching are distinguished:

  • pruritogenic , arising either in tick-borne lesions, bites, skin pathologies such as atopic dermatitis, hives, psoriasis;
  • systemic or neurogenic , developing as one of the signs of internal diseases( renal, hepatic, cardiovascular pathologies, endocrine disorders, neoplasms);
  • neurological( neuropathic) , manifested against the background of injuries of nerve trunks, compressive compression, brain tumors, abscesses, thrombosis, herpetic neuralgia;
  • is a psychogenic , observed in psychiatric disorders with no signs of dermatological pathology, a depressive condition that is associated with an increased blood content of the hormone corticotropin;
  • multifactorial( with a combination of two or more reasons).

How to identify a symptom in yourself

The patient often does not pay attention to short-term seizures of moderate itching or to permanent but not severe itching.Intensive itching is impossible not to notice, especially when it is accompanied by the following external manifestations:

  • excoriation( scratching) in the form of scratches, abrasions, small and large spots;
  • appearance of blood crusts on drying skin lesions;
  • the emergence of the syndrome of "polished nails", which is explained by the constant scratching of the skin, in which the nail plates are grinded and polished and become very smooth and shiny;
  • irritability, fatigue caused by sleep disorders, nervous system fatigue.

The video below will tell you about the causes of localized pruritus:

Diseases and disorders

Local itching that affects parts of the body can be the usual physiological state after an insect bite or a sign of regeneration of damaged skin,But is often one of the manifestations of dermatological or systemic( affecting the whole organism) pathology, requiring immediate diagnosis with the detection of the cause.

The most common causes of localized skin itching:

  • dry skin;
  • skin infection( folliculitis, impetigo);
  • contact, allergic, atopic dermatitis, as a reaction to certain drugs, chemicals, insect bites;
  • dermatoses - eczema, psoriasis, dermatophytosis, red flat lichen;Herpetiform dermatitis, pruritus, pediculosis, scabies, xeroderma;
  • chicken pox, measles( itching against the background of skin rashes);
  • liver disease, accompanied by yellowing of the skin, mucous membranes, sclera;
  • chronic kidney failure;
  • endocrine pathologies( diabetes mellitus, thyrotoxicosis, hypothyroidism);
  • oncological pathology.

In many diseases of internal organs, malignant tumors, vascular pathologies, localized pruritus manifests itself in certain areas.

diseases and the corresponding localized itching( excluding anogenital region):

Disease / kind of itching Localization except anogenital Features and other affected areas
Cholestatic( liver) itching at the biliarycirrhosis( 100%), hepatitis, chronic cholecystitis in shape, sclerosing cholangitis, giardiasis, jaundice( 25%), pancreatic tumor limbs, hip, abdomen, hands, feet, the skin between the fingers. Whole body, anus, genital area.Intensive, often - permanent.
Uremic in chronic renal failure, pyelonephritis, glomerulonephritis in chronic form Skin of neck, shoulder girdle, extremities, genitals, nasal mucosa. The whole body is often itchy.Strengthening immediately after dialysis, at night, in the summer
diabetes( diabetic) ear canal, eyelids, the skin around the eyes All skin, the anal area
menopause( menopause) Armpits, Leather chestTongue, palate Genital area.Often - attacks
Oncology( paraneoplastic spontaneous itch, often - moderate, rising at night), including the following diseases:
Polycythemia( erythremia) limbs, head, and neck. Stitching, burning.Aquatic( in contact with water).It may itch whole body
Hodgkin's disease( lymphoma) FIELD lymph nodes, scalp Intensive
brain cancer outer and inner nose region
Prostate Cancer scrotum, perineum
carcinoma, adenocarcinoma limbs, chest, upper back, arm folds with burning
tumors with metastases in bone or skin cancer lesion areas
Neuropathy, mental disorders, including:
form of peripheral neuropathy( paresteticheskaya notalgiya or so-called persistent itching) medial zone blades boundary C involving 2 - 6 thoracic nerves
sclerosis skin segment corresponding to the region of the spinal cord lesion Paroxysmal
Postherpetic neuralgia is time fIELDzheniya often accompanied by pain
thrombosis of cerebral vessels, focal lesions side of the body opposite the brain damage
allergic reactions, asthma, obstructive lung disease the front of the neck, chest, back whole body
varicose veins, varicose eczema, thrombophlebitis of the lower limbs skin along the affected vessels

Furthermore, it is possible to allocate the limited area localization itching under certain pathologies:

zone, striking itching Possible pathology
Auricles, external ear canals eczema, seborrheic, atopicdermatitis, diabetes mellitus, psoriasis
eyelids, eyelashes line conjunctiva Atopic dermatitis cosmetics demodekoz( tick-borne disease), blepharitis, conjunctivitis, keratitis, barley, corneal ulcersshell, dry eye syndrome
nose, skin and mucous Pollinoz, intestinal helminth infections, brain cancer
fingers, wrists eczema, scabies, contact dermatitis
mucosa of the mouth, tongue iron deficiency, folic acid, vitamin B, allergy, candidiasis, stomatitis, herpangina, pemphigus, neuropathy
facial skin Rosacea demodekoz, psoriasis, diseases of the intestine, cold allergy, food, drug, the sun, toosmetiku
Buttocks scabies, herpes, intestinal dysbiosis, stomach ailments, allergic to synthetic fabrics, laundry detergent

How to deal with such a sign

presence itching affecting isolated areas of the skin, oftenIs a sign of banal allergy.But, if all possible factors leading to such a reaction( drugs, food, chemicals, including cosmetics, temperature factor) are eliminated, and the itching continues, this condition can be an early or leading symptom of any disease, cutaneous pathology and even oncology.

For this reason, detailed diagnostic tests should be carried out in order not to miss a serious disease.

Diagnostics

Cutaneous-itching-woman When the initial examination revealed the presence of the skin and, except itching, and other symptoms:

  • rashes, scratches, itch moves, cortical formation, bites;
  • redness, peeling, puffiness;
  • Cyanosis, redness, yellowing.

If a rash, inflammation, pustules, spotted spots, spots are found, a dermatological examination is necessary.

If the skin shows no signs of dermatoses, dermatitis, tick-borne lesions, the following tests are included in the examination:

  • general and biochemical blood test( leukocyte count, ESR);
  • urine analysis( presence of protein and fractions, sugars, bacteria, cholesterol, ALT, bilirubin, creatinine, urea, serum iron);
  • determination of blood viscosity( coagulation);
  • feces for the presence of blood, helminths;
  • radiography and ultrasound of the organs of the chest, small pelvis, peritoneum;
  • level of thyroxine.

Further, after studying the reasons, we learn how to relieve pruritus in the elderly, in a child, in an adult man and in a woman during pregnancy, and how to eliminate itching at home.

The folk methods for combating skin itching will tell this video:

Treatment

First of all, eliminate possible factors-itch provocators, which include:

  • overheating, temperature changes, direct sun rays,Cold, hot water;
  • fabrics of synthetics and wool;
  • contact with allergenic substances - detergents, cosmetic, hygiene products, household and industrial chemicals;
  • medications and products that can provoke an allergy on the skin;

Intensity decreases

In the treatment of skin itch of different locations, the following drug groups are selected to reduce its intensity:

  • anti-malignant drugs for scabies( Benzilbenzoate, Spregal, Lindan, Permethrin, Sulfur Ointment)
  • antihistamines( Loratadine, Fexofenadine, Tavegil, Suprastin, Dimedrol, Fenkarol, are especially effective in injection), Bikarfen is an antiallergic sedative with a pronounced antipruritic effect;
  • mast cell inhibitors( Ketotifen);
  • preparations of calcium, sodium thiosulfate;
  • Naltrexone( Antakson, Vivitrol), Gabapentin, Cyclosporin A.( only on doctor's recommendation),
  • systemic glucocorticosteroids Prednisolone, Dexamethasone;
  • sedatives( Phenobarbital), antidepressants( Paroxetine, Doxepin, Paxil, Fluvoxamine);
  • Cholestyramine, Kolestipol, Rifampicin, Metronidazole, Essentiale, Resalyut, Karsil, Heptral with cholestasis( congestion of bile) on the background of hepatic pathologies;
  • sorbents Polysorb, Polypefan, white and black coal, toxins;
  • probiotics Bactistatin, Bififor, Bifiliz, Probiophore - in any pathology associated with the release of toxins or the violation of the intestinal microflora.

Local

Dermal itching-2 Local treatment includes the following:

  • anesthetics - Anestezin 5-10%, Phenol 1-2%, Diphenhydramine 5-10%, in combination with menthol antipruritic effect increases;
  • Capsaicin with extract of red pepper;
  • creams and ointments with Lidocaine, Prilokain( preliminary application with Capsaicin significantly reduces its side effect - burning sensation);
  • corticosteroid ointments - Pimafucort, Doxepin Cream, Cynaphram Ointment, Hydrocortisone, Elokom, Celestoderm, Beloderm, Bufeksamak, Lorinden A, C, Mezdoderm;
  • Calcineurin inhibitors - Elidel( Pimecrolimus), Tacrolimus( Protopic), Advagraf, Prograph
  • Fenistil gel, Acriderm GC, Boromentol, Radevit, Psilo-balm, menthol ointment, Nizulin, Panthenol, Advantan, Baneocin, Fucidin, Levomekol, Gystan, Enterosgel;
  • topical preparations for fungal skin infections: Exodermil, Tinedol, Nizoral, Zalain, Mycospores.

Nonspecific complementary therapy

  • cold compresses( with urea) - softens, moisturizes, reduces xerosis, relieves itching;
  • ointments, creams with menthol, camphor, zinc;
  • in the presence of bacterial infection requires general and local antibacterial drugs;
  • physiotherapy: UV radiation, including PUVA, UVA and UVB phototherapy;

Some itching rashes, for example with prurigo, are removed by laser, cryotherapy, injections of Triamcinolone.

About the skin itching in a child will tell a specialist in the video below: