Vitiligo: causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment

August 12, 2017 15:31 | Pigmentation

One of the most unexplained diseases that are very complicated in treatment is Vitiligo.It is represented by white spots that appear on the skin of people at different ages.White spots are the result of the absence of melanin( pigment) in the skin layers.This article will tell you in detail what are the symptoms, the causes and methods of treatment with folk remedies at home for vitiligo disease in children and adults, will show photos of patients and give useful advice.
disease of vitiligo causes

Features of the disease

Vitiligo occurs in different countries.The most unpleasant thing is that this disease has become increasingly common in people of all ages.The reason for this widespread prevalence is not defined.

Doctors believe that this pathology does not pose a health hazard.At the same time, white spots indicate the presence in the body of any serious violations.People are also concerned about the aesthetic issue.The disease manifests itself in the form of white spots, which are an unpleasant

cosmetic defect.

Vitiligo refers to poorly understood dermatological diseases.Specific unpleasant sensations, discomfort, it does not cause, but psychological, aesthetic problems for the patient are guaranteed.

The examined pathology of the doctor was included in the group "dyschromia skin"( dyschromia cutis).Translating from Greek the violation of skin pigmentation: "dys" - difficulty, disruption of function, "chroma" - color, color.

In a normal state, the color of the skin is provided by such pigments:

  • Carotene( yellow);
  • Melanin( brown);
  • Reconstituted hemoglobin( blue);
  • Hemoglobin, saturated with oxygen( red).

Excess / deficiency of pigments affects the change in the color of the skin. The disease( vitiligo) in the people is also called "white spot disease", "pes", "leukopathy", "piebald skin". In translation from Latin, vitiligo means a flaw, a flaw.This disease is believed to be acquired by primary skin dyshromia.But a third of cases are transmitted genetically.

About what vitiligo tells this video:

Vitiligo stages

Vitiligo has four stages of vitiligo:

  • I. Initial. Characterized by the formation of a single spot on the skin.Depending on the characteristics of its development, this stage flows into one of the following.
  • II.Stationary. The patient has only one spot that does not grow for a long period, it is in a stable state.On the epithelium of the patient, additional neoplasms do not appear.
  • III.Repigmentation. It is characteristic of those cases when depigmentation was provoked by medical measures, taking medications.This stage is very rare.
  • IV.Progressive. It is characterized by an increase in the number, size of white spots for several months( 2 - 3).Progression can occur slowly( new spots appear very slowly around the old formation), lightning fast( the number of spots throughout the body is rapidly increasing.) A lot of new white spots appear in a week.

Forms

Vitiligo Taking into account such peculiarity as localization, the nature of distribution, it is customary to select 3 forms of the disease in clinical practice:

  1. Focal .Spots are formed on different parts of the body, foci.
  2. Generalized .White spots appear throughout the body.
  3. Universal .Almost all the epidermis shows depigmentation.

Focal has 3 varieties:

  • Focal .Presence of one, several spots in one hearth.
  • Segmental .White spots are grouped in the area of ​​the plexus of nerves or localized in their direction.
  • Mucous .Spots are formed only on mucous membranes.

The generalized form also has its own variants:

  • Acrophastic .There is a defeat of the epithelium on the hands, feet, face.
  • Vulgar .Spots randomly cover the epidermis of the whole body.
  • Mixed .It is characterized by the mixing of individual varieties, for example, vulgar + acrophastic, segmental + vulgar, acrophastic + segmental.

Dermatologists identified 2 types of disease( A, B):

  • A "nonsegmental". It is characterized by the absence of a violation of the sympathetic nervous system.In such cases, the disease in question is associated with autoimmune diseases.
  • In the "segmented". Disturbance of pigmentation is localized in the direction of the nerves, their plexuses.It is associated with a violation of the sympathetic nervous system.

Causes of

In rare cases, the influence of the genetic factor on the occurrence of vitiligo is present.But this disease is not congenital.Its occurrence depends on the influence of certain factors( external, internal).Specialists noted an increase in cases of illness during the period of high solar activity( summer, spring).

The disease develops when there are such factors:

  • Genetic. The relationship between genetics and disease has been experimentally proven.R. Spitz( a scientist working in the state of Colorado) confirmed the existence of a family predisposition to the emergence of this pathology.Holders of brown eyes are more at risk of developing vitiligo.
  • Presence of autoimmune failures. When immunity is compromised, antibodies from healthy cells of the body are affected.These findings were made by doctors who in practice noticed that patients suffering from cutaneous lesions often have concomitant disease( lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, thyroid dysfunction).
  • Drug administration.
  • Dysfunction of the endocrine gland. Failures in the operation of this gland, changes in the level of hormones can lead to the development of vitiligo.
  • Dysfunction of the ovaries, adrenal glands, pancreas, pituitary gland.
  • Diseases of the digestive tract. Due to a violation of absorption of enzymes in diseases such as malabsorption, dysbacteriosis, the necessary nutrients( magnesium, copper, zinc, manganese) enter the skin in insufficient quantities.Without these nutrients, melanocytes( special cells) can not produce enough melanin necessary for pigmentation.
  • Epithelial epithelial dysfunction. Usually trophic disorders are a consequence of traumatizing the epithelium( micro-trauma, burns, scars).
  • Enzyme deficiency of tyrosinase.
  • Action of chemical substances. Skin may be affected by substandard cosmetic products, formaldehyde, phenol.
  • Violation of the functioning of the autonomic nervous system.

Vitiligo occurs when the body is weakened by injuries, infections, intoxication.

For signs and symptoms of skin diseases of vitiligo in children and adults, read below.

Symptoms

The appearance of vitiligo is indicated by the formation of white spots, it is possible that only one such spot will initially appear. The depigmented spot has milky white color, its dimensions are small( diameter 0.2 - 0.3 cm).Over time, such a stain grows, he has similar neoplasms.Their shape can be oval, round, the borders of the depigmented section are clearly delineated.

Over the white spots, the scales are not formed, the stain does not rise above the pigmented skin, it is located on a par with it.At the edge of the spot / foci of spots, the accumulation of pigment is visible.It turns out.That stain is clearly delineated by a dark ring on the border with a healthy patch of epidermis.Inclusions of intense pigmentation can be found even inside the depigmented area.

From primary spots, having small sizes, over time large foci are formed, having an irregular shape.The edges of such a focus are also endowed with enhanced pigmentation.

Pigmentation often affects open areas of the body( neck, hands, feet, face, elbows, fingers, legs.) The disease is localized in the near-anoral area, the groin area, on the scalp.In men, spots in the mustache, beards can form.Fusing in the hearths depigmented spots can spread to the entire abdomen, buttocks, back.

Hair in the depigmentation zone also lose color, discolour.Dysfunction of the sweat glands was noted.In the sun, diseased areas do not sunbathe, but the area with hyperpigmentation surrounding the spot becomes darker, more saturated.

Vitiligo sometimes accompanies the following symptoms:

  • scleroderma;
  • flat lichen;
  • alopecia are alopecia;
  • psoriasis;
  • chorioretinitis;
  • GI disease with chronic course.

Symptoms of Vitiligo

Vitiligo-causes-and-treatment-folk-remedy-symptom

Diagnostics

A differential diagnosis is required for an accurate diagnosis.This disease is differentiated with the following:

  • pityriasis;
  • idiopathic teardrop hypomelanosis;
  • partial albinism;
  • is a chemical, true, post-inflammatory leukoderma;
  • tuberous sclerosis;
  • leprosy;
  • multicolored lichen.

Patient must undergo a comprehensive examination.It includes a lot of research:

  • general blood test;
  • biopsy;
  • study of epithelium through a Wood lamp;
  • examination by video-dermatoscope;
  • histological examination to detect complete / partial absence of melanocytes;
  • blood on the conduct of the Wasserman reaction.

Knowing the causes of the disease vitiligo, consider its treatment.

Treatment

Vitiligo is considered an intractable disease. So far, scientists have not been able to pinpoint the cause of depigmentation.Also, the mechanism of the development of the disease is not fully understood. In very rare cases, the disease passes by itself, without any medical measures.Although modern medicine has given people the opportunity to apply various medical therapeutic methods, the disease can be cured completely only in individual cases.

Therapeutic therapy is prescribed by the doctor after the examination.Treatment is selected taking into account such features:

  • age;
  • physical status;
  • stage of the development of the disease;
  • the size of the affected area;
  • localization of spots.

The video below will tell you about the treatment of vitiligo:

Therapeutic way

Taking into account the progress in the field of medicine, Vitiligo treatment has been started by various methods, among them we distinguish:

  • Laser therapy;
  • Phytotherapy.
  • Macro, microelement therapy.
  • Glucocorticosteroid therapy.
  • Epithelial bleaching;
  • Application of the preparation "Melagenin plus".

Specialists are engaged in the development of a vaccine, the action of which is to eliminate the autoimmune reaction, which often provokes the development of the disease.

According to medical practice, the maximum effect brings complex treatment.In this case, non-surgical methods of therapy with surgical methods are combined.The stop of the pathological process depends on the accuracy in the detection of the factor( external, internal) that provoked the development of the disease.

Vitiligo therapy also uses UVB therapy.The affected areas of the epidermis are affected by ultraviolet radiation.For a better effect, it is worthwhile to use waves whose length is 310 nm.Narrow-wavelength therapy is considered to be more effective than exposure to type-A rays.

By medicamentous method

Vitiligo-causes-and-treatment-folk remedies For the treatment of vitiligo, such medications are used:

  • "Thiamin".
  • "Riboflavin".
  • "Ascorbic acid".
  • Vitamins C, E, B12.
  • "Melagenin".
  • "Gel VITISKIN".
  • "Vitasan".
  • "Ammifurin".

Operation

Surgical treatment, which involves melanocytic transplantation, autologous transplantation.But doctors still do not give a guarantee for a long lasting effect of the operation.

We will not intentionally describe how to treat skin disease of vitiligo in children and adults with folk remedies, as there is no sense in this treatment.

Prevention of disease

No specific preventive measures were found by specialists.But doctors recommend:

  • less time to stay in the sun;
  • carry out hardening procedures;
  • take vitamins.

Complications

One of the significant complications is the formation of sunburn due to loss of protective function by the skin.

Forecast

For the sick with this disease, the prognosis will certainly seem unpleasant.Vitiligo is chronic.

It is almost impossible to heal it. Doctors will only be able to stop the development of the disease.

In the video below the girl shares her ways of treating vitiligo: