Ecchymoses in children and adults: on the skin, in the mouth, after injections

August 12, 2017 15:31 | Exanthema

When a person strikes a part of the body, usually a bruise appears on the site of the bruise.However, this is not the only reason for the appearance of such spots.Specialists call them ecchymoses, and they can be a consequence of some diseases.

Features of the disease

Skin is the largest organ.It has, among other functions, a protective load and reacts very quickly to the appearance of diseases of a different nature.

Ecchymoses occur as a result of injury to the vessel( capillary), and blood enters neighboring tissues. Often, subcutaneous hemorrhage occurs due to hematologic problems or it can be a different kind of disease.

Ecchymoses can appear simultaneously with petechiae.This is what red hemorrhages are called, which are of the same nature as ecchymoses, but the size of this spot is up to two millimeters in diameter.

Petechia and ecchymosis on the skin( photo)

Classification of ecchymosis

Ecchymoses differ in the cause that initiated them.The same reason also determines the locati

on of the problem, for example:

  • with bleeding to the intraperitoneal space of the ecchymosis appear on the lateral surfaces of the abdomen and around the navel,
  • if the cause of the disease is scurvy, then ecchymoses occur on the oral mucosa.

Reasons for the occurrence of

  • One of the variants of the cause of the appearance of ecchymosis is mechanical damage to tissues.In places where capillaries are damaged, blood enters the tissues, which is manifested in the form of spots on the skin or mucous surfaces.
  • Another case is when small bruises( ecchymoses) appear for no apparent reason.This is a signal that there is a cause in the body that initiated the problem.

Typically, such factors act:

  • problems in the field of gynecology:
    • adnexitis,
    • ectopic pregnancy at the time when there was an interruption;
    • ovarian integrity disorder,
    • salpingitis;
  • pathology may result from the treatment of any diseases:
    • administration of medications:
      • acetylsalicylic acid,
      • steroids,
      • heparin,
      • warfarin;
    • performing radiation therapy,
    • ecchymoses may occur in the areas where the injection was made;This is due to the fact that the needle is damaged by the vessel;A person may be predisposed to such phenomena if the vessels are close to the surface or their walls are thin and not sufficiently elastic;
  • infectious diseases:
    • typhus,
    • scurvy,
    • diphtheria,
    • meningitis,
    • leukemia;
  • pathology associated with the circulatory system:
    • vasculitis,
    • hemophilia,
    • thrombocytopenia,
    • von Willebrand disease;
  • defeat organs located within the abdominal cavity:
    • pancreatitis,
    • gallbladder damage,
    • peritonitis,
    • umbilical hernia( pinching),
    • ulcer perforation,
    • necrosis of the intestinal wall.

Symptoms

The only sign of ecchymosis is the presence on the cutaneous or mucous surface of characteristic spots( bruises, as they are called). They have the following main features:

  • spots do not protrude above the surface, they can not be detected by palpating;
  • objects have a different color, it depends on the prescription of the appearance of ecchymosis;Hemoglobin gradually disintegrates, and this circumstance stains the stain, demonstrating the process stage:
    • , if only ecchymosis has formed, then its color is black or blue;
    • the stain turns yellow, may be greenish;
    • after becomes even more pale color and disappears;
  • ecchymoses have an irregular shape with indistinct edges,
  • spot size in diameter more than three millimeters.

In a sense, the appearance of ecchymosis in certain areas of the body( if there was no traumatic effect) can be a clue to find the root cause of the problem, for example:

  • in an infant, bruises in the abdomen may indicate an umbilical hernia,
  • The same problem in women gives a hint to check the condition of organs in the pelvic area and so on.

Diagnostics

If the cause of the appearance of ecchymosis is not clear, then the specialists are tasked with diagnosing the patient to identify the disease that initiates the problem.

A number of actions are performed:

  • specialist collects anamnesis of the disease,
  • if necessary, the patient is assigned a comprehensive study or some of these procedures:
    • biochemical blood test,
    • ultrasound of pelvic area and abdominal cavity,
    • takes biological material(Bone marrow) for biopsy research,
    • conduct hemogram, coagulogram;
    • reveal the number of platelets.

Treatment

There is no single-valued procedure for treating ecchymosis.This is due to the fact that the cause of the problem can be a variety of diseases.The therapeutic process is aimed at overcoming the pathology that initiated ecchymosis.

Therapeutic way

If, for example, a person has purpura, then a plasmaphoresis is prescribed.

Medicated

Depending on the disease that caused the appearance of ecchymosis, specialists prescribe the medication.Often it is recommended to drink medicine regulating blood problems, including, to exclude the possibility of blood clots.

If the patient has found that the walls of the vessels are weak, then preparations for this direction are prescribed for their strengthening.For example, the use of ascorutin for three weeks( tablet three times a day) is recommended.

Operation

If the problem is caused by ruptures in the abdominal area, surgical intervention is necessary.The same decision is made when acute gynecological problems become the cause of bruising:

  • tube rupture due to ectopic pregnancy,
  • violation of ovarian integrity.

Prevention of the disease

To avoid the appearance of bruises, the nature of which comes from traumatic influence, it is necessary, of course, to beware of injuries.Since ecchymoses in a large number of cases are a consequence of other diseases, then bruises do not appear, it is necessary to do disease prevention( the root cause).

Complications

The disease itself does not bear consequences.All attention should be paid to the cause of this phenomenon.The pathology that initiated ecchymosis may be fraught with complications.

Forecast

The success of treatment depends on the complexity of the problem that caused the appearance of ecchymosis.