Petechia: classification, symptoms and manifestations, diagnosis, treatment methods

August 12, 2017 15:31 | Exanthema

If red dots appear on the skin surface, then this should be noted.It is necessary to get advice from a specialist.Sometimes it can be a symptom of a systemic( or infectious) disease.

Features of the disease

The rupture of capillaries allows you to get a small portion of blood under your skin - so there are small points of red color( petechiae). Small, frozen, subcutaneous bruises are created as a result of an inadequate functioning blood coagulation system.

Another mechanism for the appearance of petechiasis on the skin is possible.As a result of pathological processes in the body, erythrocytes leak through the walls of the capillaries into the nearest tissues.

Petechia on the skin( photo)

Classification of petechia

Petechia can be:

  • single,
  • multiple.

ability to localize spots:

  • face,
  • mouth( mucosa),
  • torso,
  • conjunctiva,
  • skin surface feet,
  • the same hand,
  • eyelids,
  • earlobe.

also differ petechiae:

  • primary spots - formed as subcutaneous ecchymosis,
  • secondary spots - when there was a penetration of red blood cells from the capillaries into the tissue.

Causes of occurrence of

Occurrence of petechia can provoke factors of different nature.Certain diseases are able to cause such reaction of the organism( petechiae):

  • neoplastic processes,
  • kapillyarotoksikoz,
  • disease, infectious nature:
    • cytomegalovirus infection,
    • mononucleosis,
    • endocarditis,
    • angina,
    • scarlet fever,
    • sepsis,
    • meningitis,
    • smallpox,
    • typhoid;
  • hypercortisolism( hormonal dysfunction),
  • leukopenia,
  • thrombocytopenia,
  • vitamin deficiencies,
  • drug use,
  • infant scurvy.

Petechiae may be a side effect of therapeutic interventions:

  • radiotherapy,
  • mesotherapy,
  • drug use for a long time:
    • indomethacin,
    • atropine,
    • penicillin,
    • heparin,
    • naproxen,
    • warfarin;
  • chemotherapy.

Causes of capillary rupture due to physical effects on them:

  • Petechiae may appear in small quantities with intensive weightlifting.
  • Injury is the most common cause that contributes to the appearance of petechiae.Damage to the integrity of the walls of the capillaries makes it possible to get a small amount of blood out of the vessels.
  • Clothing that causes inconvenience, including, because it does not fit in size, is capable of initiating the appearance of petechiae.
  • Voltage in the body, for example, at the time of a severe cough, can cause a break in the capillaries on the face.
  • Aging of the skin promotes the formation of specks.
  • Stress can create stress, which provokes the appearance of petechiae.

Symptoms

Petechiae - a spot on the skin or mucosal surfaces, which have the features of:

  • not protrude above the surface,
  • not detected by palpation,
  • are small - up to two millimeters,
  • are painted first in a bright color( crimson or red), but eventually turn pale( become brownish) and often disappear themselves;
  • after pressing, the speck does not disappear.

Symptoms in children and adults are identical - the appearance of reddish points.In children, provoking petechia can injure muscle tissue( and as a result of capillaries) during games or childhood illnesses( with whooping cough - from a strained cough).

The specialist is trying to determine the cause that triggered the appearance of petechiae. It should be understood whether behind the appearance of specks an infectious disease, systemic disease or petechiae arose from the physical effect on the tissues.

It is taken into account:

  • whether the patient has contacted infectious patients,
  • what medicines took,
  • , whether there were falls, bruises, injuries;
  • in what environment does the patient stay,
  • is the patient inclined to allergies,
  • which infectious diseases were ill earlier,
  • appearance of the petechiae, their number;
  • how the process of appearance of specks develops,
  • was vaccinated.

To clarify the diagnosis, a specialist can designate:

  • analysis for microorganisms and antibodies,
  • general blood test,
  • coagulogram,
  • bone marrow biopsy.

Treatment

If the spots appear after a bruise, then, as a rule, they pass by themselves.In the case when petechiae signals the presence of the disease, the doctor aims the treatment course to overcome this ailment.

Petechia in

Petechiae in the language

Therapeutic way

  • A cold compress is applied to the bruised area.The time of applying ice( wrapped in a towel) is 15 minutes.
  • Patients who are weakened from the disease are prescribed general health therapy( vitamins, globulins).

Medication

The doctor recommends taking medications:

  • antihistamines( in the course of treatment) - with an allergic reaction of the body;
  • antibiotics( as part of the course of treatment) - with an infectious disease;
  • if the patient has an autoimmune disease, a course is prescribed:
    • corticosteroids,
    • vasoconstrictor,
    • desensitizing drugs.

Operation

If the petechiae are secondary, they do not disappear on their own.They are recommended to be deleted.The operation belongs to the category of cosmetic procedures.

Prevention of the disease

To avoid the appearance of petechia, it is necessary to take preventive actions:

  • to avoid injury and bruises,
  • to exclude from their wardrobe tight clothes,
  • to consume healthy food and vitamins that help strengthen the walls of blood vessels,
  • to try to treat the emerging diseases in time, not allowing a chronic course.

Complications

In severe cases, petechiae can spread throughout the body and cause fever.Sometimes it comes to fainting.A person can have a delusional state and cramps.

Such phenomena occur more often with children.Also, for systemic diseases( autoimmune) in a sick person, it can happen:

  • cardialgia,
  • dyspnea,
  • joint and muscle pain.

Forecast

If the petechiae is caused by mechanical damage, the spots will eventually pass by themselves.Petechia caused by various diseases can disappear if the cause of their occurrence is eliminated.The prognosis depends on whether it is possible to cure the disease that triggered the appearance of specks.

More information about the petechiae can be found in the video below: