Determination of the burn area and its degree in the child and adult: 1, 2, 3, 4
Damage to the skin shell occurs when in contact with any heated object, acid, current, other factors.In the domestic sphere, a burn is a frequent occurrence, it is even possible to get dangerous forms of injury.
How can you determine the extent of the burn, what features and manifestations correspond to each of the forms?In this article, we will look at these issues and further describe the main techniques that help calculate and determine the burn area in children and adults.
Degrees of burns
The subdivision of all burns in degrees is of great importance.Thus, therapeutic measures, consequences, the possibility of self-restoration of the skin are determined. For example, if the microcirculatory bed and the germ part of the skin are preserved, then the surgical technique of treatment is not used.The body will heal the wound on its own.
The classification of burns, which will be given below, applies worldwide.Several factors influence the formation of this or that degree:
- how much the trauma dee
- as far as it spread to nearby sites;
- whether a circulatory disturbance occurred;
- whether the organs were affected;
- additional lesions.
And now let's talk about the manifestations that are typical for burns 1, 2, 3, 4 degrees in a child and an adult.
Degrees burned by the example of the hand
Damage is not considered significant because the uppermost layer of the skin is damaged.Its recovery occurs quickly enough and after a week of trail from the resulting injury does not remain.Active exfoliation of the dead layer begins the next day.
The causes of this form of burn can be:
- Boiling water.
- The sun.
- Weak acid or alkaline solutions.
The main signs accompanying minor injuries are redness, burning sensation when touching the surface, redness.There is sometimes itching and swelling.The last symptom often accompanies only extensive injuries.However, the first degree is usually very limited.Here it is necessary to take into account that superficial damage can accompany deeper ones.In such cases, the depth and vastness of the burn is important.
Therapeutic measures are minimal, there is no burn disease, which allows the tissues to recover within 3-4 days.Completely the epidermis is restored to the seventh day, with no appreciable scarring.
With this form of damage, the deeper layer already suffers, therefore, therapeutic measures are aimed not only at eliminating the consequences of contact with traumatic factors, but also in restoring microcirculation.Even with large lesions, grade 2 is characterized by a very favorable course.
- The whole important network of capillaries and vessels, nervous processes is preserved, therefore the list of complications is rather limited.
- One of the main criteria distinguishing the 2nd degree is the formation of blisters.Such blisters at the time of injury quickly fill with plasma through the destroyed dermis.Particularly severe pains are disturbed in the first period after the burn.The damaged area itself is red, swollen.
- Treatment is purely conservative, among the surgical methods of therapy, only the practice of opening the formed blisters is used.At 2 degrees long time there can be a red site on a body, on the average which passes the order of 2 weeks.As with the first form of injury, there is no burn disease.
- Among the complications, the risk of which remains for any victim, allocates only the risk of infection and the development of dehydration.In almost every case, all risks are eliminated through timely medical assistance.
- Differentiate the second form of the burn from the third when viewed.If the affected area is painful, and the usual touch brings a strong discomfort to it, then this trauma is referred to the second form.
The specialist in the video below will describe the second degree burn treatment:
About what it is and what the third-degree burn looks like, we will tell further.
This degree is further subdivided into 2 subcategories.In each case, the damage to the skin is so deep that sometimes even subcutaneous tissue suffers.But since the nature of the damage to the dermis varies a little, the third form is divided as follows:
- 3a. Injury affects the entire dermis and the papillary layer located beneath it, which includes important tissue components( nerve fibers, vessels, etc.).The only deepest layer is able to survive with this subcategory of the burn.All this greatly worsens the possibility of self-regeneration of even small areas of trauma, but nevertheless epithelization, although slowly, occurs.As a rule, it is an edge, that is, a new tissue grows from the edges of the wound.Grow with healthy skin can not exceed 2-3 cm.
- 3b. Even deep layers are traumatized.In the wound area there is only fatty subcutaneous tissue, which does not possess any capacity for recovery.Epithelialization does not occur and further transplantation is needed.
The third degree of injury is usually extensive, so the victim falls into several groups at once.This includes the danger of occurrence:
- burn disease,
Despite the fact that( in comparison with the first two forms) the degree of burn is deep, but it still refers to surface types of wounds.It differs in such manifestations as:
- Bubbles of different sizes.
- Severe intoxication.
- Bloody mucus discharge.
Treatment is performed only in the hospital, because the victim will undergo surgery and needs a full-fledged therapy aimed at preventing complications. Prevention of burn disease is especially important.
The third degree of burn will tell this video:
Regardless of the extent of the damage, the fourth degree of burn is considered the most dangerous.Even if he is concentrated in one part of the body, it is still capable of even amputating.Under the most severe prediction, damage will provoke death.
It is possible to get the 4th degree of injury not only at the moment of contact with open fire, acid, but also with electric injury.Deep damage affects the skin, tendons, fatty tissue, muscle fibers and bones.
Differentiation with respect to other forms of burns is not carried out, because this form has special symptoms:
- lack of sensitivity and any pain;
- a dark scab;
- cerebral coma;
Because of a dense scab, edema builds up very quickly and exerts additional pressure on the injured organs, which significantly exacerbates the condition.Complications can develop rapidly.Especially it concerns manifestations of burn disease.It is very dangerous if the puffiness develops in the sternum, as this will lead to a rapid loss of the chance of rescuing the victim.
The fourth degree will have a favorable prognosis only if the burn is severely restricted.The period of treatment in such cases takes several months.With a large area of injury, few can survive.Healing and complete recovery in these situations is stretched for several years because of the need for repeated transplantation of the skin.
Next, we'll tell you how to determine the burn area in percentages and other values.
Degrees of burn with the foot example
Determining the area of the injury
Regardless of the degree of burn, it is important to quickly assist.To carry out the diagnosis and evaluate the nature of the damage will become a specialist.The severity of the lesions will be based on how large the burn area is.
Here are a few techniques for measuring the burn area:
- Area burned by the "rule of nine". This technique is fast enough, you do not need to use tools to perform calculations.The body is divided into zones, each of which will be a multiple of nine.So, the trunk on both sides - 18%, the same figure for the whole lower limb( includes the foot, thigh and shin).For 9%, the upper limb and head are assigned, and 1% - the perineum.The method gives only approximate indicators, since the areas of different parts of the bodies are individual and have different sizes.
- The Postnikov method is not currently used due to the high process complexity.The procedure itself is the application to the body of cellophane or thin napkins from gauze, and along it to conduct a burn circuit.After the obtained contour, calculate the area of the lesion.
- The area of the burn according to the "rule of the palm" is one of the simplest.The palm is conditionally taken as a size equal to 1% of the total surface of the victim's body.
- The scheme of Vilevin is a special stamp on which the human silhouette is applied.The affected area on this stamp is painted over and the prevalence of the injury is determined.This is done on millimeter paper with the color corresponding to the degree.
- Technique of Browder and Land is often used for small victims.So, in childhood, the thigh area is equal to 5.5%, the stop and shank - 8.5%, the neck and head - 21%, the trunk - 16%.As in adults, the perineum occupies 1% of the body.
The depth of the burn, the area it touched on, whether it caused additional injuries( fractures, poisoning, etc.) is of great importance.Together, this has a considerable influence on the overall forecast.
In the video below the girl talks about the degrees of burn and first aid at them: