Skin Tuberculosis: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment Methods
Being a life-threatening disease affecting the upper layer of the epidermis, the disease, skin tuberculosis is a pathology of the skin with a chronic course characterized by recurrent recurrences with an increase in symptoms characteristic of the disease.The provoking factor for the emergence of deterioration of the state are such reasons as the inadequacy of the antituberculous treatment performed before, the immunity of the organism to the medicines used and the gradual adaptation to the active components of the strains of the disease.Modern methods of treatment allow not only to stabilize the general condition of the patient, but also to reduce the degree of manifestation of symptoms, to accelerate the end of the relapse period and to provide the patient with greater resistance to provoking factors that exacerbate the disease.
As an extrapulmonary type of tuberculous lesion of the body, skin tuberculosis can be considered one of the most dangerous dermatological lesions, which tends to rapid progressi
Features of the disease
Tuberculous skin lesions have a pronounced blurring of their manifestations, which is also one of the reasons for the difficulties in diagnosing this skin disease.Inconsistency of the manifestations of standard and common clinical forms of the disease with practical manifestations that can be individual in each specific case is a feature of this disease.This circumstance does not allow to create a single classification combining the signs and manifestations of a variety of the disease, to form a generally accepted scheme of therapeutic effect, which could be used for the speedy removal of the main symptomatology.
Since the diagnosis of tuberculosis of the skin for many reasons listed above, the difficult consequences of advanced forms of lesions often lead not only to chronic form of disease emergence, but also the appearance of the negative impact on the patient's appearance and, in some cases, and to his disfigurement. The majority of cases of infection with skin tuberculosis are detected and detected already at a late stage of the disease( developing over 5 years and even more), which is the reason for the difficulty of developing the most effective treatment regimen. The consequences of this dermatological lesion persist for life and require constant correction and attention to the health of the epidermis.
Today, there is a classification of tuberculosis of the skin, which assumes the existence of certain manifestations of lesions in a patient flow specifics and development of the pathological process, which allows to assign it to a specific species of disease.
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shared by all types of lesions into two main groups:
- true lupus , which has additional titles localized, bacterial, Granulomatous.
- The lesions of the upper layer of the epidermis , which result from predominantly allergic skin diseases.It can be vasculitis, immune inflammation, hyperergic skin inflammation.
majority of diagnosed cases of tuberculosis of the skin belongs to the first group of true species, but there is also an intermediate type of the disease, which stands apart from the above two.This is a lichenoid variant of the disease, which can be placed in the tuberculoid subgroup of skin lesions.
The second group includes lesions of the skin that have nonspecific manifestations and allergic causes.A special peculiarity of manifestations of pathologies of this group can combine non-specific manifestations of this disease and the presence of tuberculous tubercles on the surface of the skin, which are usually diagnosed by histological examination.
Also, there is the following division subtypes of lupus:
- primary tuberculosis - it occurs in places of introduction into the thickness of the upper layer of the epidermis pathogens, it usually occurs in people who have not been vaccinated or had been ill with tuberculosis;
- warty skin tuberculosis , also occurring in places of introduction of the pathogen into the skin, but it manifests itself in people who have been vaccinated and had been ill with this disease;
- ulcerative form of tuberculosis of the skin , arising in the thickness of the mucous membranes and having specific external manifestations and a characteristic course of the pathological process.Most often this kind of lupus affects men, with around a natural hole in the mucous observed small nodules, which quickly disintegrate and in their place are found ulcerated surface with uneven bottom.Sores can gradually merge and occupy large areas;
- is a tuberculosis of the face , in which the smallest precipitations of jelly-like consistency from light to dark brown are diagnosed on the surface of the face skin.After they completely pass, small scars remain in their place, negatively affecting the appearance of the person;
- is a type of condensed skin tuberculosis , which most often occurs in young women and girls.It is characterized by the presence on the face skin of deep globular neoplasms that stand out on the skin and after the disappearance leave traces on the skin.
Peculiarities of the listed species the disease in question to refer them to a specific type, but often marked by blurring symptoms often complicates not only the process of diagnosing the disease, but attributing it to a particular type.
TB skin in children
Symptoms and signs of
first manifestations negative changes characteristic when developing lupus may assume the appearance of the top layer of the epidermis globular neoplasms having pronounced skin shaftOn the perimeter and as they heal on the skin, there are manifestations of fibrosis.
Skin in the course of development of the disease loses its evenness and healthy appearance, its shade can vary slightly.As the progression increases, the convexity of these formations increases, inside the eruptions there may be a jelly-like content.In places of introduction of mycobacteria, the formation of an infiltrate is revealed, which has a negative effect when spilling onto healthy skin, infecting it and thereby increasing the areas of the dermis.
To prescribe a treatment regimen, a diagnosis of "skin tuberculosis" must be confirmed in advance.The classification presented above will help to relate the symptomatology to a certain type of disease, but due to the special vagueness of the manifestations, this pathology is often determined at an already advanced stage of development.
For the diagnosis of the disease by a doctor, first of all external manifestations in the form of rashes, the appearance of changes in the skin condition are studied.The subjective feelings of the patient will help the dermatologist to make a more complete picture of the current disease.
Also for differential diagnosis, the following methods are used:
- histological examination of skin in the area of their lesion;
- staining by the Tsilya-Nelsen method of skin sections;
- laboratory tests of blood and urine tests.
Also, to clarify the diagnosis, ultrasound of the skin, nails and subcutaneous fat is performed.
Treatment of skin tuberculosis
The methods of therapeutic effect are appointed by the attending physician-dermatologist, which, taking into account the individual characteristics of the organism and the degree of neglect of the pathological process, will help to make the most effective treatment regimen.Adults receive medication with strong enough medications that affect the formation of rashes on the surface of the skin and the activity of mycobacteria.
In childhood, the treatment of skin tuberculosis should be carried out only under the supervision of a doctor and after the appointment of a treatment regimen.Dosage is selected depending on the current symptoms and the susceptibility to the treatment.In the presence of severe negative manifestations, treatment should be corrected taking into account the sensitivity of the child's organism to the medicines used.
To eliminate the most obvious and unpleasant manifestations of this dermatological lesion, such therapeutic and physiotherapeutic methods as UV irradiation, the use of magnetotherapy to increase the body's resistance and stimulate the immune system of the body are usually used.It is also recommended to make certain adjustments to the nutrition of the patient, which also positively affects the body's resistance and speeds up the healing process.
Normalization of the patient's day regimen, elimination of the causes for constant stress and depressive state also positively influence the process of recovery. For tuberculosis of skin of any kind it is recommended to combine the medicinal effect on the body and medical treatment, which increases the rate of manifestation of the positive dynamics of treatment.
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For drugs that cope well with the main symptoms of skin tuberculosis, include:
- preparations with moderate activity- Thibon, PASK;
- medicines with average activity in the treatment of skin tuberculosis - streptomycin, ethambutol, florimycin;
- funds with high efficacy - rifampicin, ioniazide.
Surgical intervention in detecting skin tuberculosis is usually not performed.
Although it is not necessary to engage in self-medication when diagnosing this type of dermatological lesion, traditional medicine can be used as a supportive and immune-stimulating treatment.For example, a drug based on natural ingredients that stimulate immunity, increase its resistance to disease.
It can be infusions of medicinal herbs, broths vitaminized( dogrose, hawthorn, preparations based on honey and other bee products).
Prevention of the disease
If there is a genetic predisposition to any skin diseases, regular checkups should be carried out at the dermatologist, in case of any negative changes in the patient's condition, immediately take a course of treatment to reduce the characteristic symptoms and eliminate the unpleasant manifestations of the initial stage of the disease.
As a complication of this disease, there may be significant cosmetic defects, and in the absence of the necessary treatment, there can even be a disfigurement of the facial skin, which in some cases requires plastic surgery.
Survival in this skin lesion is 85-93%, only in some particularly neglected cases and with a low body resistance there is a probability of a lethal outcome.
For more information about skin tuberculosis, see the video below: