Atopic dermatitis in children and adults: treatment, diet, causes, symptoms

August 12, 2017 15:31 | Dermatitis

Atopic dermatitis is a diffuse neurodermatitis( as in the case of oral dermatitis).In other words, this disease is a chronic genetically caused inflammation of the skin of an allergic nature.

This article will tell you in detail about what causes and symptoms of atopic dermatitis in adults and children, what treatment and menu is required, photos of patients we also attach.

Features of the disease

Atopic dermatitis is a diffuse neurodermatitis. In other words, this ailment is a chronic genetically conditioned inflammation of the skin of an allergic nature. Various allergens can enter the development of atopic dermatitis, which enter the human body with food intake, on contact, inhalation of dust, pollen.

This disease develops more often in young children two to three months.Passes the disease to 3 - 4 years of life.Only in certain cases the disease can remain with the patient for life.In newborns this form of dermatitis is manifested after 2 months from birth.

The risk of developing this disease i

ncreases significantly if the patient has a hereditary predisposition to various kinds of allergic reactions.

Atopic dermatitis is a consequence of a malfunction of the child's body, as well as immaturity of the gastrointestinal tract.

The video below tells about atopic dermatitis in adults:

Forms and stages of atopic dermatitis

The disease has three stages that are manifested in children in their first 12 years of life.These include:

  • infant .It affects children at the age of 2 months - 2 years.It is usually called diathesis.This stage of the disease affects the face, the folds of the limbs, and it can also extend to the scalp, buttocks, whole body;
  • for children .It affects the skin of children aged 2 to 12 years.Eruptions on the epithelium appear more often in the neck, on the hands, on the folds of the limbs;
  • for teenage .Eruptions affect the skin of a teenager in the décolletage, on the ulnar fossa, the wrist.The most severe lesion of the skin is observed on the face, neck.

In addition to the pediatric form of atopic dermatitis, an adult form is also isolated.Usually it is found in people older than 12 years.This form of the disease is characterized by a completely different course.

Causes of

Atopic dermatitis types Often, atopic dermatitis occurs in children with a genetic predisposition.For example, if relatives had a tendency to allergies, bronchial asthma, there is a possibility that the baby may develop a disease.In most cases, the tendency of the skin to hypersensitivity.

Allergic rash on the human epidermis is a consequence.The reason is hidden in the contact of the body with certain specific substances.

An allergic reaction may develop due to contact with such allergens:

  • animal wool;
  • pollen of plants;
  • food products;
  • home dust;
  • household chemicals;
  • washing powders.

The child quite often contacts these items and on the most delicate skin, and the mucous membranes, the above components settle, causing allergic manifestations.The allergic skin rash is caused largely by the immature immune system of the baby.

There are three types of penetration of the allergen into the human body:

  • pin;
  • air;
  • food.

Symptoms

With the development of atopic dermatitis, the patient notices the following symptoms:

  • dryness of the epidermis;
  • strong, bothersome itching;
  • redness of the epidermis;
  • peeling skin on the cheeks.

Each of the stages is characterized by special symptoms:

  • Infant stage is characterized by the presence of the child's redness, light rashes.Due to wetting the affected areas of the epithelium, puffiness may occur, and crusts also develop.
  • Children's stage is characterized by such manifestations as: the appearance of swelling, a noticeable thickening of the skin pattern, on the epithelium papules, erosions, crusts, cracks, plaques are formed.When combing the affected areas on the epidermis, hyperpigmentation of the eyelids may appear, in the region of the lower eyelid a fold may appear, which among doctors is known as the "Denier-Morgan line".Children's stage is characterized by a painful course.
  • The adolescent stage is characterized by a variable flow.The disease can subside.And then re-exacerbated.Rashes cover a significant area of ​​the skin( neck, ulnar fossa, face, decollete).

Diagnosis

If a child is atopic with dermatitis, the following specialists should be visited:

  • neurologist;
  • Allergist;
  • gastroenterologist.

There are no specific laboratory markers for diagnosing atopic dermatitis.Given this feature, the diagnosis of the disease is performed by detecting the characteristic clinical signs.The diagnostic algorithm of the disease consists of:

  • mandatory criteria. These include itching, localization, the morphology of the eruption, the presence of a chronic recurrent course, atopy, the presence of a hereditary predisposition to atopy;
  • additional criteria. These include the following: palmar ichthyosis, keratoconus, xerosis of the epithelium, eczema of the nipples, folds of the Denier-Morgan, anterior subcapsular cataract, recurrent conjunctivitis, erythroderma, rashes on the hands, feet, increased level of immunoglobulin E.

Diagnosis "atopic dermatitis"Is clearly defined in the case when the patient has 3 or more mandatory, additional signs.By the way, with solar dermatitis and children's eczema, differential analysis is performed with this type of dermatitis.

On how to treat atopic dermatitis in adults and children, we will tell below.

Treatment of

Before starting treatment of the disease, it is important to discover the cause that triggered a regular exacerbation of the disease. If this is not done, the rash will show up on the skin again and again.

  • When as the allergen the animal hair, the pollen of the plants, appears to be reduced, contact the child as much as possible.
  • If the allergy occurs under the influence of dust, you need to replace woolen, downy blankets for synthetic, cleaning books, soft toys from the nursery.

When allergic manifestations provoke food allergens, you need to exclude certain foods from the diet.

About the treatment of a child with atopic dermatitis will tell this video:

Therapeutic way

Since the child is still completely immature liver, treatment with medicamentous methods is not recommended.The liver is not yet fully functioning, it can not cope with medications.At the same time, the situation will be aggravated by the constant exposure to the allergen.

  • Children are recommended to facilitate the procedure.In the first 2 years of life, it is recommended to take herbal baths regularly to combat atopic dermatitis.At an older age, taking herbal baths is optional.
  • Dry children's skin should be moistened with creams, natural oils.Creams are considered to be more effective in therapy than lotions.
  • The wrinkles should be ventilated.To reduce itching, it is recommended to lubricate the pimples with green, fuccarin.
  • Sometimes ultraviolet radiation is used to treat children.

About ointments and creams, which according to the reviews help with atopic dermatitis, we will tell below.

By medicamentous method

Atopic dermatitis Only in the most severe cases does the doctor prescribe such medicines for the treatment of atopic dermatitis:

  • antihistamines( tablets, injections);
  • glucocorticosteroids( ointment).

The action of these drugs is to suppress the itching, the removal of inflammation.

In modern medicine, allergists began to use this method of therapy of atopic dermatitis, as allergen-specific immunotherapy, abbreviated as SIT. The essence of this therapy is to introduce into the body of the sick increasing doses of the allergen. Thus there is an increase in the resistance of the child's body to the influence of a certain allergen.

About the treatment of atopic dermatitis in children and adults with folk remedies we will tell you further.

Folk methods

To treat atopic dermatitis can be quite effective and folk remedies.Treatment is carried out with tinctures, ointments, compresses, lotions, lotions.Consider some popular recipes:

  1. Compress of fresh potatoes.Vegetables are cleaned, crushed( without the use of metal objects).The compress is applied overnight on top of the affected area of ​​the skin.
  2. Lotion from medicinal veronica.For its preparation you need a glass of boiling water, 1 tbsp.L.Herbs.We fill the flowers with boiling water, we insist 2-3 hours.Lotion should be treated affected areas about 5 times a day.

Next we will tell you about the diet in adults and children with atopic dermatitis.

Diet

Children can be prescribed a special diet.Diet can also be needed by the mother, who is breastfeeding.Consider separately each of the diet options.

The video below tells a doctor about a diet for atopic dermatitis:

For a child

The general condition of the baby's organism, suffering from atopic dermatitis, largely depends on how thoroughly he adheres to the prescribed diet.To maintain the body in good condition with an undefined allergen it is necessary to adhere to a diet that prohibits the use of the following products:

  • chocolate, cocoa;
  • Citrus;
  • milk, eggs;
  • candy;
  • fish;
  • fruits, vegetables, berries, having orange color.

This diet is recommended until the doctors determine the allergen that causes an exacerbation of the disease.

For a nursing mother

The diet must be balanced.A breastfeeding woman is not allowed to use the same foods as a sick atopy.

Pregnant women are allowed to use these products, but in moderation.For better digestion, the products should be cooked, steamed.

Prevention of the disease

Atopic dermatitis reviews To avoid the development of atopic dermatitis, the following rules should be observed:

  1. Often moisturize the skin.
  2. Maximum limit contact with irritants( household chemicals, detergents), provoking the development of an allergic reaction.
  3. Drink medicines prescribed by a doctor.
  4. Do not comb damaged areas.
  5. Often bathe the baby in warm water.

Complications

Rinsing eruptions can form when combing rashes.If you put the infection on the epithelium, there are abscesses.Sometimes under the influence of atopic dermatitis manifested diaper, exfoliative dermatitis.

Forecast

Usually the disease passes to adolescence.With timely begun treatment, a full recovery begins.If you start the disease, then very often, relapse will occur.