Hypomelanosis: drop-shaped, Ito, idiopathic progressive, macular

August 12, 2017 15:31 | Pigmentation

In the category of dermatological diseases, called leukoderma, hypomelanosis occupies one of the main places.It develops against the background of a decrease in melanin, which is the main reason for the formation on the skin of spots of lighter shades.This pathology is determined on the background of disturbances in the activity of the organism, mainly those relating to the genetic sphere.

Features of the disease

Many doctors are of the opinion that several factors are important in the manifestation of hypomelanosis.Under the influence of ultraviolet radiation destruction of melanin occurs very rapidly.Such changes can occur even in a child.

There are several categories of hypomelanosis, and each type of disease has its differences with symptoms of manifestation, time of occurrence, causes, etc. In total,Types of the disease:

  1. Hypomelanoz Ito. Is a genetic feature, rarely transmitted hereditarily, more often sporadic way of origin.On the skin, the pathology manifests itself in wa
    vy form or zigzagging.Almost always this category of the disease is accompanied by problems in the neurological sphere, which is caused by violations of embryogenesis occurring during pregnancy.Because of this, there are often other evils in the development of the child.
  2. Teardrop-shaped. This type of disease affects women who have reduced the amount of melanin in the blood.As a rule, these are representatives with a light type of skin.Developed changes under the condition of long exposure to the sun or ultraviolet light on the cover.Because the production of melanin is much slower than its recovery, hypomelanosis develops.
  3. Idiopathic. To this category it is customary to include all those forms of the disease, the origin of which can not be reliably detected.
  4. Progressive macular hypomelanosis. This type of pathology is characterized by the fact that it is provoked by the activity of bacteria on the skin of the body, during which chemical components are produced that interfere with the normal production of melanin.

Skin of legs and forearms is affected most often, otherwise hypomelanosis can spread all over the body.Rarely, but on the face there are bright marks.

Causes of emergence and exacerbation

Mechanisms for the development of pathology vary in each case.

  • However, it is believed that most of the cases of idiopathic form of the disease arise due to disturbed processes of melanocyte production.With drop-shaped hypomelanosis, their rapid destruction occurs, but with Ito, all the problems with the migration of these cells in the 2-3 trimester of pregnancy are to blame.
  • Part of the scientists came to the conclusion that there are family cases of this disease, with the hereditary factor in particular.One way or another, but it is undeniable that it is the problems with melanocytes that lead to stains.
  • In childhood, hypomelanosis is able to accompany various other hereditary pathologies.For example, local changes in the color of the hair and skin are revealed in thromorous scleroderma and the syndrome of Vaanderburg.
  • To become aggravated the disease is capable of prolonged exposure to the sun.

Symptoms

The main manifestation in any patient is the appearance on the skin areas of lighter areas in comparison with the main pigment of the skin. Such areas can have different localization and shape, and if they appeared in a place with a hair cover, then the hair will lighten, having lost the entire pigment.

Most often, drop-shaped hypomelanosis develops, and the very first signs can be noticed from 28-30 years.In a special group of risk are women who love to use the solarium and spend a lot of time on the beach.Foci with reduced pigmentation first arise on the knee and shank, on the trunk and shoulders they occur much less often.To speed up this process is capable in the presence of serious metabolic disturbances or if the periods of being in the sun are not shortened.Neither in children, nor in adults with this type of pathology marks on the neck and face does not arise.

There are no other signs, except for Ito hypomelanosis, because it is accompanied by a huge number of violations in the field of genetics.In addition to various anomalies associated with the development of teeth and eyes, the child at different periods may occur such phenomena:

  • feet deformity;
  • macrocephaly;
  • mental retardation;
  • epilepsy;
  • curvature of the spine and other vices.

Various symptoms may be in the idiopathic form of the disease, since in this case the mechanisms that cause changes are not known.The most dangerous thing is that idiopathic hypomelanosis can develop at any age.

Diagnostics

diagnose changes in the dermatological field inspection helps the skin, which takes place with the help of Wood's lamp.If necessary, differentiate the pathology from vitiligo, albinism or another disease associated with loss of pigmentation, a histological study is prescribed.In this case, you will need to take an altered bodily area for a biopsy.

Additional diagnostic methods are prescribed, usually with idiopathic form, and also with Ito hypomelanosum.In particular, it is necessary to conduct an electroencephalogram, a neurological examination, ultrasound and MRI.

Treatment

therapeutic method

curative therapy can be supplemented by any physiotherapy techniques which improve the local metabolism.

  • Some of the best results show cryomassage procedures.
  • Photochemotherapy also significantly helps restore the formation of melanin.

Gipomelanoz idiopathic guttate( photo)

medicamentous way

developed and effective medicine that can influence the mechanisms of origin gipomelanoza and prevent new stains, does not exist. Mainly because the patient usually has a disease at the genetic level.However, treatment is still prescribed.It is in the appointment of drugs that can reduce the severity of skin manifestations and prevent the development of spots.

As for medicines, they are prescribed:

  1. Corticosteroids.This category of medicines is selected and appointed strictly in an individual order.Injections are made directly into the pigmented area.
  2. Ointments based on pimecrolimus( Elidel).
  3. Means with local retinoids( Differin, Retasol, Retinoic Ointment).
  4. Preparation Melagenin.Used for replacement therapy.

With macular hypomelanosis, the basis of treatment is Erythromycin ointment and other local antimicrobial agents.In addition, the skin should be constantly moistened.

Disease prevention

some good practices with respect to this disease does not exist, since its emergence in a large proportion of cases, influence internal factors and genetics.

Only the drop-shaped type of hypomelanosis can be prevented.To do this, you simply need to reduce the amount and duration of sunbathing and refuse to visit the solarium.Since ultraviolet penetrates to the ground even on cloudy days, it is better to use sunscreen daily.In the period up to 4-5 pm, it is necessary to be indoors.

Complications

Serious complications do not cause a change in the cover.

forecast

always patient with gipomelanozom put a favorable prognosis. An exception is only a form of Itô disease, when congenital disorders play a significant role in determining the prognosis of life.

If you try to avoid constant insolation, you can avoid spreading the disease to healthy tissues.

Hypomelanosis in a child