Pig Tenderness: photo, human symptoms, development cycle, structure, ways of infection, treatment

August 12, 2017 15:31 | Gi Tract Infections

A pig chain is a parasite from a group of tapeworms.As a result of parasitizing this helminth in the human body, the disease develops - the shadowyosis.

Against the backdrop of pigmentation, patients develop digestive disorders, neurological disorders and other abnormalities.The defeat of the pork chain is dangerous for the eyes and head structures.

Dissemination and localization

Description of pork chain Teniosis, which is provoked by porcine tapeworm, is especially common in Asia, North American and African countries, although we also have pork tapeworm in some regions.These regions include the Ural District, the Krasnoyarsk Territory, Kalmykia and Tyva.

Annually the number of cases in these regions only increases.In general, the spread of shadeosis is most typical for places where pig production is widespread.

Structure of the parasite

Pork solitary refers to tapeworms that can reach a 4-meter length.

  • The chain has a head of 2-3 mm diameter, on which the hooks and suckers are located.It is because of the hooks( w
    hich number up to 32 pieces) the parasite and was called the armed chain.Hooks help the worm to fasten firmly to the walls of the small intestine and safely restrain there.
  • Following the head is a cervix, not having segments and having a solid structure, its dimensions are small, not more than a centimeter in length.
  • Then, after the neck, there is a body of a worm consisting of a huge number of proglottids.At the cervix segments are wide, but toward the end of the body they gradually narrow.Each proglottid has a length of about one and a half centimeters and contains many eggs inside.

Pork solitaire refers to the hermaphrodite worms, so for reproduction, it does not need a partner.When tapeworm reaches sexual maturity, it begins to reproduce independently.

First, as development and growth in the pork chain develops male sex glands, and closer to maturity, develop and female organs.Over time, segments full of eggs are separated from the main body and leave the intestine along with feces.

Pork Chain has no digestive, circulatory or respiratory system.

All the functions necessary for the existence of a parasite are provided by its skin, which is also called the tegumenum.It has a hard coating and has excellent protective properties, otherwise the worm would easily be digested in intestinal structures.

The parasite has a well-developed, two-layered muscular system, and it also has neural-systemic structures consisting of twelve strands arranged throughout its body.

The development life cycle of

The intermediate owner of the pork chain is only one - it's a pig, and the final host is a man.The life cycle of the pork solitaire consists of several consecutive stages.

  1. First, parasite eggs containing larvae penetrate the intestines of the intermediate host through the mouth and esophagus.Getting into the small intestine, larvae emerge from them.
  2. The larvae are hooked to the intestinal wall by hooks, seep through them into the bloodstream and the lymphatic system, migrating to muscle tissue, cerebrospinal structures, etc. There they settle down, transforming into a stage of cysticerci.
  3. In the state of cysticerci, the larva lives long enough until the infected pig meat is eaten by a person.Penetrating into the human digestive system, the invasive larva is sucked to the esophagus and gradually begins to grow, feeding on substances from the human small intestine.Approximately 10-12 weeks after the infection, an adult specimen of the worm is formed from the larva of the porcine tapeworm, which begins to multiply actively.

Diagram of the life cycle of the pork chain

Scheme of the life cycle of pork chain

One pig can contain more than 50,000 eggs inside the proglottid.

Pathways of infection

The mechanism of hogging pigs has a fecal-oral nature, and the path of penetration of the parasite larvae is food, it is almost impossible to get water through the water, only as an exception.

Humans have a fairly high susceptibility to such helminthiasis.With the development of parasitic pathology, the infected person periodically infects himself and the larvae of the chainworm.

In the human body, this worm can parasitize for several decades.During this time the parasite often manages to inflict irreparable damage on the patient's body.

Pathogenesis

The danger of invasion by the porcine tapeworm is the development of severe consequences, which include:

  • Intoxication of the patient's body due to parasite activity, as well as mechanical damage and inflammatory reactions;
  • Depletion of the host organism due to the consumption of a large number of nutrients by the parasite;
  • If the porcine tapeworm penetrates the appendix of the intestine, it provokes an attack of acute appendicitis;
  • The parasite also causes cholangitis or pancreatitis when it enters the appropriate organs;
  • The organism is sensitized for a long time by the exchange products of the worm, which in the future provokes the development of a toxic-allergic reaction;
  • If the pork tapeworm curls into a ball or in the intestine, several individuals will be colonized at the same time, then the occurrence of an intestinal obstruction is likely;
  • Under the influence of prolonged parasitic action of the chain, cysticercosis affecting the cerebral or muscle structures, liver or heart, eyes or lungs, spinal or abdominal structures can develop in patients.

Pork chop is extremely dangerous, so therapy should be timely and effective.

Signs and symptoms of the disease in humans

Pig-chain infection often goes unnoticed until the disease develops to chronic course, only then it can be detected due to pronounced pathological symptoms.

In general, the presence of porcine tapeworm in the human intestine is indicated by manifestations like:

  • Painful attacks in the abdomen, often in the umbilical region;
  • Unexplained increase in appetite, a person becomes a real glutton, but does not improve by either gram.Such a sign is typical at the very beginning of infection, when the worm is actively growing, consuming an incredible amount of nutrients;
  • When eating food, patients infected with pork solitaire can be very vomiting and even vomit.This symptomatology is explained by strong intoxication of the body with products of parasitic vital activity;
  • The patient's immune defenses are weakened, the head often starts to hurt, can be troubling seizures and dizziness.Sometimes helminthic invasions of the pork chain cause disorders of the nervous system activity, which is manifested by characteristic increases in irritability, etc.;
  • Patients also have problems with a stool, which is observed much more often, sometimes it can show segments of the parasite.In the abdomen, constantly rumbling, worried bloating - this is also quite frequent signs of such helminthiasis;
  • Quite often the porcine tapeworm provokes the development of allergic reactions caused by the toxic action of the worm.Allergy is usually located on the skin in the form of characteristic rashes or itching discomfort.

Symptomatic is quite typical, therefore, with a pronounced clinical picture, diagnosis is not difficult.

Diagnostics

Usually, the parasite is assigned to the patient for analysis of stool and blood for the presence of eggs, joints or antibodies to the parasite.Also, an IF analysis of cerebrospinal fluid fluid is shown.

Treatment of pork chain

How to get rid of pork solitaire? The approach to the therapy of shadowosis as a whole is the use of anthelminthic drugs.

In particularly severe cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to remove parasites from the intestine.

It is important that therapeutic measures are taken in a timely manner, until the chain-maker has managed to provoke irreversible pathological changes in the host's body.

Treatment should be selected by a doctor who initially performed the diagnosis and established a true diagnosis to the patient.Since in case of pigmentation, a person has an increased risk of extraintestinal infection, the therapy is performed under conditions of inpatient stay.

It is compulsory to comply with the diet and dietary № 13.To eat the patient it is necessary on slightly, approximately 4-5 times during the day.The intervals between the food intake should be the same, the hungry, many-hour periods are unacceptable.

Folk remedies

The methods of traditional medicine are widely used in the treatment of pork solitaire, among which the most effective is the use of pumpkin seeds.

To carry out such therapy, one should take an effective laxative drug in the evening, then in the morning on an empty stomach, grind the pumpkin seeds( not less than 300 gr.) With honey.After an hour and a half you need to drink a laxative drug again or hold a enema.

An extract of male fern has an analogous anthelminthic effect, which is released in capsular form.Accept it by analogy with pumpkin seeds.

Quite effective deworming effect has burning pepper, probably, therefore, in this southern kitchen, it is this sharp spice that must be used.

Also effective in the treatment of helminthiosis of a similar origin of mushroom-chanterelles.They contain a polysaccharide substance that causes paralysis and death of the parasite.And chanterelles are able to destroy not only adults and larvae, but also tapeworm eggs.

Self-medication with shadows is unacceptable, because a parasite can lead to irreparable consequences in the body, which is fraught with a fatal outcome.

Drugs

As a part of medical therapy of teniosis, there are usually such drugs as Praziquantel, Nichlosamide, Albendazole, etc.

  1. Praziquantel belongs to the category of anthelmintic agents.Take it one time, take 10 mg of the drug per kilogram of weight.The drug is contraindicated in pregnant patients and small children under 4 years.The drug is able to provoke the development of adverse reactions such as nausea and vomiting, pain in the epigastrium, bloody diarrhea or dizziness.
  2. Niclosamide is also an effective anthelmintic medication.Adults take it for 12 tablets, and children 6-12 years of age - 6 tablets.The medicine needs to be taken before a meal is taken about an hour or a couple of hours after a meal.Tablets should be chewed or crumbled into powdery form and washed down with plain water.The duration of therapy can be up to 7 days.
  3. Albendazole takes once a single pill.For the children the dosage is calculated taking into account the weight - 6 mg of the preparation is taken for 1 kilogram.If the bovine tapeworm led to the development of cerebrospinal cysticercosis, then the drug is taken daily 8-30-day course of 800 mg of the drug per day.Against the backdrop of such long-term therapy, patients may experience side effects such as abdominal pain syndrome, dyspeptic disorders, high blood pressure, etc.

Prevention and prognosis

For the prevention of helminth infestations, pigs should carefully observe their personal hygiene by thoroughly washing their hands beforeFood intakes.In addition, you must strictly monitor the quality of cooking pork meat( a long time to cook and thoroughly roast).

At employment on the farms connected with cultivation of pigs, it is necessary to pass periodically physical examination to exclude infection of employees with parasites.When buying meat, you should carefully look at the product, and it is better to purchase it from trusted manufacturers.

The photos show the larvae of the pork chain in the meat

Larvae of Pork Chain

Forecasts of the shadows are determined by the specific shape and area of ​​the lesion.If there are lesions of other inorganic systems, the pathology often ends in a fatal outcome, since treatment in such situations is ineffective.

In general, with timely detection of helminthic invasions, the predictions are quite positive.

After the de-worming, the patient is put on the appropriate account for a 4-month period.Monthly, the patient is subjected to a control analysis of fecal masses for the presence of eggs and segments of the porcine tapeworm.If all 4 studies showed negative results, i.e., no traces of the parasite in the intestine, then the patient is considered cured.