Hymenolepiasis: symptoms, ways of infection, diagnosis, treatment, prevention measures
Hymenolepiasis is a disease that occurs more often in children aged 4 to 14 years.At the same time, it is possible to form micro-foci of the disease in kindergartens and schools, closed institutions and in families.This is due to the peculiarity of the formation of immunity and a high degree of infectiousness.
This is a parasitic disease characteristic of humans and small rodents.It is caused by a dwarf chain Hymenolepis and is mainly associated with digestive disorders.
Dwarf tartar in the adult state reaches a growth of 14-40 mm.This is the only representative of this class, which does not require an obligatory intermediate host.As the last can serve flour bugs and fleas.
Egg, getting into the body, ripens.Appears larva oncosphere.It penetrates into the villi of the small intestine and develops.The duration of parasitization of one generation is usually not more than two months.
Sometimes the disease causes rat tartar.The adult specimen has a length of up to 60 cm. Rodents are
Ways of infection
The source of infection is the infected person most often.Sometimes the disease develops on the background of unintentional ingestion of insect larvae. Transmission occurs:
- through the stool of the patient,
- utensils, toys,
- contaminated food,
- dirty hands.
Eggs can be in water or ground, transported along with dirt and dust for long distances.The risk group includes children, educators, teachers, food sellers.
Infection through meat and fish occurs only if they have been eaten raw or insufficient heat treatment has been performed.
The clinical picture of the disease can be different.It depends on the number of parasites.A third of patients have a subclinical course.First of all, the digestive and nervous system is affected.
The main symptoms of the disease are:
- severe abdominal pain,
- problems with stool,
- headache, ASD5ASAS
If there is a lot of parasite in the body, the manifestations are more severe: there are paroxysmal pains, frequent vomiting and dizziness.In rare cases, there are epileptic seizures, fainting.Memory impairment may occur.
Symptoms of a disease caused by a dwarf or rat chain are similar.If a person has chronic diseases, for example, stomach ulcer, then they become aggravated and complicated by mesadenitis.
Laboratory Diagnosis of Hymenolepidosis
The main diagnostic tool is the detection of eggs in faeces.In connection with the cyclic formation of eggs, which depends on the intensity of infection, the most effective is a three-time study with an interval of five days.
To obtain a more correct result the day before, the doctor can prescribe Fenasal with the subsequent administration of Purgen.This increases the detectability by 40-50%.
In diagnosis, attention is paid to the pallor of the skin, weight loss.In peripheral blood, hypochromic anemia, accelerated ESR and leukopenia.Serological diagnosis of the disease is not developed.
When examining the patient's health, the doctor is faced with the task of differentiating hypenolepidosis with other intestinal parasitic diseases.
Antiparasitic drugs are mandatory.Their dosage depends on the age of the patient.
Usually they are accepted for 4-5 days, then a break for a week is made for a follow-up examination 15 days after the end of treatment.
After a month, a preventative course of action is carried out.
In the intervals prescribed the reception of multivitamin preparations, a slag-free diet with restriction of coarse food.When treating a person should take a shower every day and change clothes.
Fenasal is often prescribed.Adults per day assigned to 10 tablets.Children 2-5 years old, 4 tablets.It is accepted according to a special scheme.The daily dose is divided into 4 doses.In days of treatment should adhere to a special diet.It is best to eat at 8.00, 13.00, 18.00.It is not recommended to arrange snacks.
During the treatment it is necessary to receive in full the proteins and carbohydrates.Dwarf tseleen reduces the body's resistance to infections, so you need to maintain immunity.Pay attention: during the reception of anthelmintic drugs, allergic reactions can rapidly develop.This is due to the mass death of the larvae.
Therefore, additional drugs are prescribed:
Correct treatment in 70% of cases leads to complete recovery.In other cases, only to improve.Depending on the characteristics of immunity, the disease does not respond well to therapeutic effects.When autoinvasion occurs, the drug effect is repeated.
In the treatment of complications are rare.The main one is dysbiosis.It is easy to get rid of it if you start taking medicines with lactobacilli in time.
Because of prolonged diarrhea, dehydration is possible.In 2015, a case of an unusual complication in a person with HIV was documented.Several foci of malignant cells have formed.
One of the main preventive methods is the observance of personal hygiene rules.Particular attention is paid to the health of workers in pre-school and school institutions.
It is recommended that parents take the child to a polyclinic for the analysis of eggs of helminths and carry out a prophylactic examination of those already ill.
It is necessary to conduct a qualitative fight against insects, grain pests, rodents.If you are traveling to countries where there is a risk of infection, everything should be thoroughly rinsed with running water and heat treated.