Norwegian( krestoznaya) scabies: prevention, signs, diagnosis

August 12, 2017 15:30 | Skin Parasites

Norwegian Scabies or Scabies norvegica is one of the very rare species of acarobacteria( a disease caused by a subcutaneous mite), which is an extremely severe form of typical scabies.The disease affects adults and children of any age.About folk remedies and reviews about Norwegian scabies, an effective remedy for it, prevent the disease read in our today's article.

Features of the disease

Synonyms of Norwegian scabies - scabies cortical, keratotic, dystocia - transmit the main external manifestations that accompany this pathology. Specifics:

  • is an unfavorable, especially heavy current;
  • very high infectiousness;
  • development on the skin affected by mites, coarse and thick crusts of whitish-gray color;
  • absence of itching( in 50% of cases of pathology);
  • eruptions polymorphic( of different species and forms);
  • erythroderma is a common redness, swelling of the skin, otriereal exfoliation throughout the body;
  • increased body temperature due to subcutaneous inflammation;
  • active multiplication of th
    e itch mite to a huge population parasitizing on a human.

About Norwegian and some other special kinds of scabies will tell this video:

Stages of Norwegian scabies

Infectious process with the Norwegian form of the disease can last a lifetime.Duration of the disease varies from 5 - 6 months to 40 - 50 years.The duration of the latent period of incubation ranges from 2 to 3 months to 15 years, after which the layers of crusts begin to appear.The pathology is recurrent, that is, the manifestations of cerebrospinal scabies sometimes cease for a while, but then they become aggravated again.

The causative agent of cortical scabies is transmitted among people in the following ways:

  1. Infection through the skin is the most common and occurs in children's games, hugs and handshakes, in cases when parents are taken to their bed by mites infected with mites.
  2. Contact-household way parasite transfer is realized when using the same bedding, toys, towels, clothes, books, shoes, combs.Transfer of the pathogen is possible in public places - children's institutions, dormitories, trains, hotels through blankets, mattresses, pillows.
  3. Sexual .Touching the surface of the skin with intimate contacts is an easy way of transferring the itch, as the tick-borne females become especially active in the evening and at night.

The reason for the disease is Norwegian scabies.

Reasons for the occurrence of

Norwegian scabies Parasitologists have two versions about the pathogen of Norwegian scabies.Most infectious diseaseists believe that it is caused by the itchy arachnid spider Sarcoptes scabiei.But the facts indicate that in many cases, pathology develops when a more aggressive type of tick is introduced under the skin.

Only a female can infect a person, which digs the skin in the skin with bristles and suckers, while infecting the tissues.Studies confirm that the cause of rapid multiplication of parasites is extremely weakened immunity with the following concomitant conditions:

  • HIV infection;
  • leprosy( leprosy), tuberculosis;
  • alcoholism, exhaustion;
  • mental, neurological disorders, including dementia, Down's disease, dementia, infantilism;
  • impaired peripheral sensitivity, paralysis;
  • leukemia( cancer of bone marrow cells), cutaneous lymphoma( tumor-like formations), lupus erythematosus;
  • Bloom syndrome, syringomyelia, dorsal;
  • general candidiasis( Candida fungus of all organs);
  • long-term administration of glucocorticoid, corticosteroid and cytostatic agents.

About symptoms and the first signs of Norwegian scabies in an adult, a child, incl.Thoracic read below in the article.

Symptoms

Basic

The main external signs of the disease are:

  • massive multi-layered( up to 7 layers) dense yellow-gray, gray-brown and black crusts up to 40 mm thick, covering the hard shell almost the entire body.The lesions are located on the following areas:
    • on the back of the hands and feet;
    • extensor surfaces;
    • elbows, gaps between the fingers;
    • buttocks, knees, abdomen and auricles;
    • skin of the face, nails, scalp.
  • development on the palms and soles of hyperkeratosis( pathological proliferation of the stratum corneum), limiting movement;
  • numerous and many-tier shearing moves in the lower layer of crusts;
  • polymorphic( of different forms and types) of rashes in the form of papules( red pimples), vesicles( vesicles), scales, crusts, pustules( purulent-blistering rash);
  • dry and hot skin;
  • erythroderma;
  • thickening, loosening of the nail plates, which change color, fade and quickly crumble, as occurs with onychomycosis( fungus);
  • is a specific acidic odor from an infected( similar to the smell of a sauerkraut).
  • enlargement and inflammation of the lymph nodes throughout the body.

Areas of destruction are densely packed with clusters of ticks.Between the layers there is a huge amount of itching - on one square centimeter of the affected skin in numerous moves move, gnaw tissue and multiply to two hundred parasites.Pathogens in itch moves are at different stages of development - from eggs to mature females, which is why the disease is distinguished by high contagiousness( the degree of infectiousness) and outbreaks of local epidemics in closed collectives.

Absence of itching

Norwegian scabies With Norwegian scabies, only half of the patients experience itching.Infectionists believe that the causes of the lack of itching can be:

  1. High weakness of the immune response to all irritants, allergens, the introduction of foreign agents.Toxins of subcutaneous mites are not able to cause severe allergy in the form of pruritus.
  2. Disturbances in the transmission of nerve impulses in polyneuropathy( defeat of many peripheral nerves), leprosy, syringomyelia( formation of cavities in the spinal cord).
  3. Seeming absence of itching in cases when the diseased is unable to scratch the itchy place in case of paralysis, myopathy( muscle tissue degradation).
  4. Hereditary genetic predisposition.

Let's find out how to recognize Norwegian scabies in a child and an adult.

Diagnosis

When infecting with cortical scabies, diagnosis is difficult due to the frequent absence of itching, which always appears in other forms of scabies.

Pathology is often confused with eczema, common and complicated pyoderma.Very often, the disease is taken for psoriasis, flowing in with hyperkeratosis( pathological proliferation of the stratum corneum), due to similar external signs: redness of the skin throughout the body, thick crusts affecting the stratum corneum, peeling, deformity of the nail plate, absence of itching.

In the history of parasitology, cases were recorded when patients with Norwegian scabies were prescribed hormones, hypensensitizing( reducing the sensitivity of the organism to an allergen) and antiallergic drugs that are used in the treatment of psoriasis.Erroneous therapy has led to a prolonged process of establishing an accurate diagnosis, a loss of time to begin treatment.Without proper therapy, there was an increase in all symptoms, infection of lesions and death of the patient due to blood poisoning.

To accurately diagnose the Norwegian type of scabies, a histological analysis of the biopsy specimen( cells or piece of tissue taken from suspicious areas) and a biochemical blood test are performed.

Diagnosis of scabies of Norway after diagnosis is diagnosed with the following pathologies:

  1. In the biopsy of the anomalously thickened stratum corneum, a large number of itch incrustations, tiers, mites, their eggs and larvae, are found.
  2. Identify the signs of acanthosis( excessive pigmentation of the skin in the skin folds of the groin, neck, axillary cavities).
  3. Changes in the blood are observed - an increase in the number of leukocytes, eosinophils, an increase in ESR( erythrocyte sedimentation rate).

And now let's find out how to get rid of scabies of Norwegian.

Treatment

Norwegian scabies should be treated only under the supervision of a specialist after confirmation of the diagnosis. Self-medication and an attempt to use folk remedies only aggravate the condition of the infected person, leading to serious complications and death.

Therapeutic

  1. The treatment is carried out in two stages: initially remove the crusts, where the mites hide, and after that purpose the parasites are deliberately destroyed with anti-scabiotic agents.The course of keratolytic ointments( based on sulfur and salicylic acid) makes it possible to soften and remove the crusts and infected, crumbling nail plates.The next course of acaricidal( anti-malignant) drugs kills parasites.
  2. All medicines( ointments, emulsions, aerosols) are used to apply them to dry, washed with soap, skin and left on the body for the destruction of pathogens for at least 12 hours.After that, wash with soap and change the laundry.
  3. Treatment with medicines for Norwegian scabies is performed on the entire surface of the skin.The body is completely covered, from head to foot, with medicinal ointments or liquid from aerosols.Particularly zealously treated areas covered with crusts, and redness.
  4. After treatment with any anti-malignant drugs, itching of the skin is often observed, which in no way is an excuse for interrupting treatment.The intensity of pruritus is increased due to toxins released by thousands and millions of itchy itches during mass death, therefore the dermatologist necessarily prescribes antihistamine( anti-allergic) therapy and steroid agents for rapid relief of inflammatory processes.

On what kind of ointment from scabies helps, we will tell below.

Medicated

Norwegian scabies

  1. Emulsion of benzyl benzoate( 25% for the treatment of adults, 10% for children).The advantage over sulfur ointments is the absence of a specific odor and an active permanent absorption into the skin.The volume of the emulsion for a single treatment is 100 ml.Two treatments are necessary - on days 1 and 4 of therapy.On the first and sixth day, bed and underwear is changed.It should be remembered that a 20% ointment gives a reduced effect;
  2. If the result is poorly expressed in the treatment with benzyl benzoate, sodium hyposulfite( 60%) and hydrochloric acid solution( 6%) are prescribed by the Demjanovich method, which consists in using these agents for rubbing into the skin.
  3. The most pronounced effect was observed when using 33% sulfuric ointment( sulfur-tar, Wilkinson's ointment), however, contact dermatitis often develops after it, which limits the use of this remedy.
  4. Modern anticaricidal ointments - Lindan, Permetrin, Spregal.

In this case:

  • Of the new antiparasitic drugs, aerosol Spregal is considered to be the most effective in treating cerebrospinal scabies.When processing the affected areas with Spregal, a stable positive dynamics was recorded.There is a massive softening and rejection of crusts, a decrease in redness and swelling of the skin, a lesion area with papules, vesicles.Treatment according to the instructions is carried out once, but domestic infectious diseases insist on double application of the remedy( on days 1 and 4).The whole body is treated completely, leaving the preparation on the skin for soaking for at least 12 hours.Bed set and linen change.
  • Treatment with Spray Permetrine lasts three days with a single treatment.On day 4, they bathe with soap and change clothes and clothes.Symptoms of Norwegian scabies become less pronounced, starting from the 2nd day of treatment.But Permethrin is not allowed for the treatment of children, women bearing fruit and nursing infants.
  • Lindane is considered by foreign dermatologists as the most effective acaricidal agent.For infants and young children, 0.3% ointment is recommended, for adults 1% ointment.The course of therapy 2 - 3 days.Treatment of Norwegian scabies, as in the case of the use of other drugs, alternate with keratolytic ointments for the rejection of crusts and after a warm bath( to soften the dermis).

As a result of using these funds in getting rid of Norwegian scabies, the possibility of complications, inevitable in this pathology, is reduced to a minimum probability.In case of infection with cerebrospinal scabies, in the complex treatment it is necessary to use:

  • additional means for increasing the immune defenses of the body( immunomodulators);
  • vitamin complexes, mineral supplements;
  • preparations for the restoration of skin( fat and moisturizing creams, baths with the addition of oils).

As for folk remedies, with Norwegian scabies they are ineffective in treatment, but they give a good result in the rehabilitation period.Absolutely safe doctors consider baths with a decoction of chamomile pharmacy, sage, marigold, starch and oatmeal.

Personal

In order not to become infected with crustaceous scabies, a number of measures should be observed:

  • Use only personal and bed linen, towels, towels and clothing and change them regularly.Washing of bed linen and underwear at a water temperature of at least 70 C with further ironing by a hot iron.
  • Daily swim( bath, shower), wash your hands with antibacterial soap, and not with cosmetics.
  • after possible communication with a person who has symptoms of scabies, undergo a one-time treatment of the entire skin with antiparasitic ointments or sprays, boil and iron clothes and clothes.
  • If there is persistent itching, a suspicious rash, a crust on the body, an immediate reference to a specialist( infectionist, parasitologist, dermatologist) will significantly shorten the duration of the illness and avoid complications.

About the repetition of Norwegian scabies will tell this video:

Public

It's easy to become a group of a kindergarten or a baby house, a family, a courtyard, a boarding school, a dorm room, a hotel room, a schoolClass, sports section.In the case of detection of Norwegian scabies, mandatory examination is performed by everyone who has contacted a person infected with a subcutaneous mite.

Public prophylaxis provides:

  • active detection of infectious cystic scabies and reporting any manifestations of pathology to the sanitary authorities;
  • carrying out preventive examinations of toddlers and adolescents in organized collectives( schools, day nurseries and gardens, boarding schools, sections, camps);
  • Early isolation of affected children and adults with immediate initiation of therapy;
  • monitoring of children, adults who communicated with an infected scabies mite;
  • disinfection treatment of all things, clothes of the sick;
  • Prevent contacts until complete cure of scabies and disappearance of all symptoms.

Complications

Norwegian scabies If the onset of intensive treatment of the Norwegian form of scabies does not begin in time, the disease is complicated by the following pathologies:

  • microbial eczema;
  • Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis( severe glomerular filtration system of the kidney caused by streptococcus);
  • streptococcal pyoderma( development of multiple ulcers on the skin);
  • infectious dermatitis;
  • acute rheumatic fever leading to serious cardiac pathologies and defects in the structure of the myocardium.
  • with the addition of purulent infection, which easily develops with mass damage to the skin, it is possible rapid development of sepsis( fatal infection of blood).

Forecast

If the treatment was not performed or was erroneous, the pathological process with Norwegian scabies captures the entire body.A concomitant infection, provoked by pyogenic bacteria that enter the site of lesions, penetrates the bloodstream and often causes the death of the patient. With timely started and correctly conducted treatment, the disease quickly completely regresses.